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Postuar nga: stili19
« ne: 15-04-2009, 19:39:05 »

                                        Historic Albania

The Albanians are reputedly descendants of Illyrian and Thracian tribes that settled the region in ancient times. The area then comprised parts of Illyria and Epirus and was known to the ancient Greeks for its mines. The coastal towns, Epidamnus (Durrës) and Apollonia, were colonies of Corcyra (Kérkira) and Corinth, but the interior formed an independent kingdom that reached its height in the 3d cent. A.D.

After the division (395) of the Roman Empire, Albania passed to Byzantium. While nominally (until 1347) under Byzantine rule, N Albania was invaded (7th cent.) by the Serbs, and S Albania was annexed (9th cent.) by Bulgaria. In 1014, Emperor Basil II retook S Albania, which remained in the Byzantine Empire until it passed to Epirus in 1204. Venice founded coastal colonies at present-day Shkodër and Lezhë in the 11th cent., and in 1081 the Normans began to contest Byzantine control of Albania. Norman efforts were continued by the Neapolitan Angevins; in 1272, Charles I of Naples was proclaimed king of Albania. In the 14th cent., however, the Serbs under Stephen DuÅ¡an conquered most of the country.
Ottoman Rule

After Dušan's death (1355), Albania was ruled by native chieftains until the Turks began their conquests in the 15th cent. In return for serving the Turks, a son of one of these chieftains received the title Iskender Bey (Lord Alexander), which in Albanian became Scanderbeg. Later, however, he led the Albanian resistance to Turkish domination and, after his death in 1468, was immortalized as Albania's national hero. Supported by Venice and Naples, Albania continued to struggle against the Turks until 1478, when the country passed under Ottoman rule.

Many Albanians distinguished themselves in the Turkish army and bureaucracy; others were made pashas and beys and had considerable local autonomy. In the early 19th cent., Ali Pasha ruled Albania like a sovereign until he overreached and was assassinated. Under Turkish rule Islam became the predominant religion of Albania. However, the Albanian highlanders, never fully subjected, were able to retain their tribal organizations. Economically, the country stagnated under Ottoman rule, and numerous local revolts flared. A cultural awakening began in the 19th cent., and Albanian nationalism grew in the aftermath of the Treaty of San Stefano (1877), which Russia imposed on the Turks and which gave large parts of Albania to the Balkan Slavic nations. The European Great Powers intensified their struggle for influence in the Balkans during the years that followed.
National Independence

The first of the Balkan Wars, in 1912, gave the Albanians an opportunity to proclaim their independence. During the Second Balkan War (1913), Albania was occupied by the Serbs. A conference of Great Power ambassadors defined the country's borders in 1913 and destroyed the dream of a Greater Albania by ceding large tracts to Montenegro, Serbia, and Greece. The ambassadors at the conference placed Albania under their guarantee and named William, prince of Wied, as its ruler. Within a year he had fled, as World War I erupted and Albania became a battleground for contending Serb, Montenegrin, Greek, Italian, Bulgarian, and Austrian forces.

Secret treaties drafted during the war called for Albania's dismemberment, but Albanian resistance and the principle of self-determination as promoted by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson helped to restore an independent Albania. In 1920 the Congress of Lushnje reasserted Albanian independence. The early postwar years witnessed a struggle between conservative landlords led by Ahmed Zogu and Western-influenced liberals under Bishop Fan S. Noli. After Noli's forces seized power in 1924, Zogu fled to Yugoslavia, where he secured foreign support for an army to invade Albania. In 1925, Albania was proclaimed a republic under his presidency; in 1928 he became King Zog.

Italy, whose political and economic influence in Albania had steadily increased, invaded the country in 1939, forcing Zog into exile and bringing Albania under Italian hegemony. The Albanian puppet government declared war on the Allies in 1940; but resistance groups, notably the extreme leftist partisans under Enver Hoxha, waged guerrilla warfare against the occupying Axis armies. In 1943–44, a civil war also raged between the partisans and non-Communist forces within Albania. Albania was liberated from the Axis invaders without the aid of the Red Army or of direct Soviet military assistance, and received most of its war matériel from the Anglo-American command in Italy.
Albanian Communism

In late 1944, Hoxha's partisans seized most of Albania and formed a provisional government. The Communists held elections (Dec., 1945) with an unopposed slate of candidates and, in 1946, proclaimed Albania a republic with Hoxha as premier. From 1944 to 1948, Albania maintained close relations with Yugoslavia, which had helped to establish the Albanian Communist party. After Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia broke with Stalin, Albania became a satellite of the USSR. Albania's disapproval of de-Stalinization and of Soviet-Yugoslav rapprochement led in 1961 to a break between Moscow and Tiranë.

Chinese influence and economic aid replaced Soviet, and Albania became China's only ally in Communist Eastern Europe. Albania ceased active participation in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) and, after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, withdrew from the Warsaw Treaty Organization. In the early 1970s continuing Soviet hostility and Albanian isolation led the Hoxha regime to make overtures to neighboring Yugoslavia, Greece, and Italy. The alliance with China lasted until 1977 when Hoxha broke ties in protest of China's liberalization and the U.S.-China rapprochement.

Ramiz Alia became president in 1982 and, following Hoxha's death in 1985, first secretary of the Albanian Communist party. Alia began to strengthen ties with other European nations, notably Italy and Greece, and restored diplomatic relations with the USSR (1990) and the United States (1991). The government began to allow tourism and promote foreign trade, and permitted the formation of the opposition Democratic party.
Attempts at Democracy

In the elections of Mar., 1991, the Communists defeated the Democrats, but popular discontent over poor living conditions and an exodus of Albanian refugees to Greece and Italy forced the cabinet to resign shortly thereafter. In new elections (1992) the Socialists (Communists) lost to the Democrats, Alia resigned, and Democratic leader Sali Berisha became Albania's first democratically elected president. With unemployment and inflation accelerating, the new government took steps toward a free-market economy. Although the economic picture showed some signs of improvement during the 1990s, poverty and unemployment remained widespread. The Berisha government prosecuted former Communist leaders, including Ramiz Alia, who was convicted of abuses of power and jailed. In 1994, Albania joined the NATO Partnership for Peace plan, and in 1995, it was admitted to the Council of Europe.

Berisha's party claimed a landslide victory in the 1996 general elections, which were marked by irregularities. In Mar., 1997, following weeks of rioting over collapsed pyramid investment schemes, Prime Minister Aleksander Meksi, a Democrat, resigned. Berisha, however, was elected to a new five-year term and named Bashkim Fino, a Socialist, to head a new coalition government. Parliament declared a state of emergency as rebels gained control of large sections of southern Albania and threatened the capital. Thousands of Albanians fled to Italy, and an international force from eight European nations arrived in Apr., 1997, to help restore order. The Socialists won parliamentary elections held in July, and Berisha resigned, succeeded by Socialist Rexhep Kemal Meidani. Fatos Nano became prime minister in 1997 but resigned in 1998 and was succeeded by fellow Socialist Pandeli Majko. Majko resigned in Oct., 1999, after he lost a Socialist party leadership election and was succeeded by Socialist Ilir Meta. Albanians approved their first post-Communist constitution in 1998. The country was flooded with refugees from neighboring Kosovo in 1998 and 1999. In the June, 2001, parliamentary elections the Socialists were returned to power. After Meta resigned in Jan., 2002, Majko again became prime minister; following Majko's resignation in July, Nano succeeded him. In June, 2002, a compromise candidate, Alfred Moisiu, a former general and defense minister, was elected to succeed President Meidani.
Postuar nga: gerti19
« ne: 02-04-2009, 14:10:39 »


Albania , Albanian Shqipnija or Shqiperia, officially Republic of Albania, republic (1995 est. pop. 3,414,000), 11,101 sq mi (28,752 sq km), SE Europe. Albania is on the Adriatic Sea coast of the Balkan Peninsula, between Serbia and Montenegro on the north, Macedonia on the east, and Greece on the south. Tiranë is the capital and largest city.



 (4000 B.C.-1000 A.D.)
Relive the astonishing achievements of the ancient Dorians, Illyrians, Roman and Byzantine Empires.  See the great impact Albanians have had on these important empires and people.
 
 (1500 A.D.- 1912)
The Ottoman Empire created a vast variation in Albanian culture and the adaptation to Ottoman life had important consequences in Albanian history.  This was a time when Albanians thrived and continued to spread their power around the world.

 
 
(1912 - 1944)
In the creation of the modern independent Albanian state proved to be a real challenge for the Albanian people.  Yet through the strong leadership of King Zog I, the Albanian People persevered

(1944 - 1991)
If one could pinpoint a dark period in the history of Albania it would be under the communist dictatorship of Enver Hoxha.  The end of WWII forced Albania into an escalation toward communism and shaped the darkest 40 years in its history.

 (1991 -  beyond)
The rapid development after communism of the Albanian state and the increasing modernization can only be accredited to the Albanians people's immense spirit and pride for their country.

 
 

Postuar nga: leo.193
« ne: 07-03-2009, 15:47:40 »

historia e shqiperise eshte e tmerrshme
Postuar nga: aleks200
« ne: 06-02-2008, 04:21:11 »

Jashte teme.
Postuar nga: Zeri YT!
« ne: 10-09-2005, 17:46:43 »

Timeline Albania www.timelines.ws

1225BC     Earliest known Illyrian king, Hyllus, died.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

400BC-300BC     King Bardhylus united Illyria, Molossia (Epirus) and part of Macedonia. The Illyrian kingdom reaches its peak.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

358BC     Illyrians were defeated by Philip II of Macedonia.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

312BC     King Glauk of Illyria expelled the Greeks from Durrës.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

232BC     King Agron died, the Illyrian throne was occupied by Queen Teuta.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

165BC     Romans captured King Gent of Illyria and sent him to Rome. Illyria went under Roman control.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1-100        Christianity came to Illyrian populated areas.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

9        Emperor Tiberius of Rome subjugated the Illyrians and divided present day Albania between Dalmatia, Epirus, and Macedonia.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

193        Apr 9, In the Balkans, the distinguished soldier Septimius Seversus was proclaimed emperor by the army in Illyricum.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

300-700    Goths, Huns, Avars, Serbs, Croats, and Bulgars successively invade Illyrian lands.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

395         Division of Roman Empire left lands presently inhabited by Albanians under the administration of the Eastern Empire.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

700-800    Slav tribes settle into the territories of present-day Slovenia, Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, and assimilated the Illyrian populations of these regions. The Illyrians in the south averted assimilation.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

732         Illyrians were subordinated to the patriarchate of Constantinople by the Byzantine Emperor, Leo the Isaurian.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1054        The Roman and Orthodox Churches split decisively. The Orthodox Church did not accept the papal authority from Rome. Christians in southern Albania were left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome.
    (WSJ, 11/14/95, p. A-12)(WP, 6/29/96, p.B7)(www, Albania, 1998)

1081         Albania and Albanians were mentioned for the first time in a historical record by a Byzantine emperor.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1100-1200    Serbs occupied parts of northern and eastern Albanian inhabited lands.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1204         Venice won control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regained control of the southern portion and established the Despotate of Epirus.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1272         Forces of the King of Naples occupied Durrës and established the Kingdom of Arbëria, the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1385         Albanian ruler of Durrës invited Ottoman forces to intervene against a rival.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1389        Jun 15, Ottoman Turks crushed Serbia in the Battle of Kosovo. The Serbs were defeated by the invading Turkish Ottoman army at the Battle of Kosovo Polje, the "Field of Blackbirds." In the battle, the Serb prince Lazar was captured by the Turks and beheaded. The Battle of Kosovo, in which the Serbs chose death rather than surrender, remains a permanent symbol in the Serbian national consciousness. Lazar's bones were placed in the monastery at Gracanica in Kosovo. Albanians joined a Serbian-led Balkan army that was defeated by Ottoman forces at the Battle of Kosova.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, BR p.7)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(HN, 6/15/98)(HNQ, 3/25/99)(WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A17)(www, Albania, 1998)

1403         Gjergj Kastrioti (d.1468) was born. He became the Albanian leader known as Skanderbeg.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(HNQ, 10/5/98)

1443        After losing a battle near Nis, Skanderbeg with a group of Albanian warriors defected from the Ottoman army and return to Kruja. Albanian resistance to Turkish rule was organized under the leadership of Skander Beg in Kruja. He was able to keep Albania independent for more than 20 years. A baronial museum in his honor was later was designed by the daughter of Enver Hoxha.
    (CO, Grolier's Amer. Acad. Enc./ Albania)(WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A21)(www, Albania, 1998)

1444        The Albanian people organized a league of Albanian princes in this year under George Kastrioti, also known as Skanderbeg. As leader of this Christian league he effectively repulsed 13 Turkish invasions from 1444 to 1466, making him a hero in the Western world.
    (HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1449         Albanians, under Skenderbeg, routed the Ottoman forces under Sultan Murat II.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1468        Skanderbeg (62) of Albania died and the Turks absorbed Albania into the Ottoman Empire. Over the next five centuries most Albanians converted to Islam.
    (CO, Grolier's / Albania)(www, Albania, 1998)

1478        Ten years after the death of Skanderbeg, his citadel at Kruje was finally taken by the Ottoman Turks and Albania fell into obscurity during several centuries of Turkish rule.
    (HNQ, 10/5/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1479         Shkodra fell to the Ottoman Turks. Subsequently, many Albanians fled to southern Italy, Greece, Egypt, and elsewhere; many remaining were forced to convert to Islam.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1600-1650     In the early Seventeenth Century: Some Albanians who converted to Islam found careers in Ottoman Empire's government and military.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1600-1800    About two-thirds of the Albanians converted to Islam.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1799        Mar 7, In Palestine, Napoleon captured Jaffa and his men massacred more than 2,000 Albanian prisoners.
    (HN, 3/7/99)

1822         Albanian leader Ali Pasha of Tepelena was assassinated by Ottoman agents for promoting autonomy.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1830         1000 Albanian leaders were invited to meet with an Ottoman general who killed about half of them.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1835         The Ottoman Porte divided Albanian-populated lands into vilayets of Janina, Manastir, Shkodra, and Kosova with Ottoman administrators.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1861         The first school known to use Albanian language in modern times was opened in Shkodra.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1877-78     Treaty of San Stefano, signed after Russo-Turkish War, assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain block the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturned the Treaty of San Stefano and divided Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren began to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affected Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1878        Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin amended the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers.
    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)

1881         Ottoman forces crushed Albanian resistance fighters at Prizren. The League's leaders and families were arrested and deported.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1897         Ottoman authorities disbanded a reactivated League of Prizren, executed its leader and banned Albanian language books.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1908         Albanian intellectuals met in Manastir (Bitolja, Macedonia), at the Congress of Manastir to standardize the Albanian alphabet using the Latin script. Up to now, Latin, Cyrillic and Arabic script had been used.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1910        Aug 26-27, Agnes Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (d.1997), later known as Mother Teresa and care-taker of the poor in Calcutta, was born to an ethnic Albanian family in Skopje, Macedonia. She later founded the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta and was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for her work.
    (SFC, 8/28/96, p.A10)(SFC, 8/26/97, p.C3)(AP, 9/12/03)

1912         May, Albanians rose against the Ottoman authorities and seized Shkup (Skopje, Macedonia).
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Oct 8, Montenegro declared war on Turkey beginning the 1st Balkan War. Balkan League members followed Montenegro 10 days later. [see Oct 18]
    (http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/bravo/balkan1912.htm)

1912        Oct 18, The First Balkan War broke out between the members of the Balkan League-- Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro--and the Ottoman Empire. A small Balkan War broke out and was quelled by the major powers. Albanian nationalism spurred repeated revolts against Turkish dominion and resulted in the First Balkan War in which the Turks were driven out of much of the Balkan Peninsula. Austria-Hungary's 1908 annexation of Bosnia and Hercegovina spurred Serbian efforts to form the Balkan alliance with its neighbors.  As a result of the war on Turkey, Serbia doubled its territory with the award of Northern Macedonia. Albanian leaders affirmed Albania as an independent state. [see Oct 8]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.290)(CO, Grolier's/ Albania)(HN, 10/18/98)(HNQ, 3/27/99)(www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Nov, Albanian delegates at Vlora declared the independence of Albania and established a provisional government.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        Dec 25, Italy landed troops in Albania to protect its interests during a revolt there.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1912        Dec, Ambassadorial conference opened in London and discussed Albania's fate.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1912        European powers awarded Kosovo to Serbia rather than the new Republic of Albania. [see Nov, 1913]
    (SFC, 10/28/00, p.A12)

1913        May 30, New country of Albania formed.
    (MC, 5/30/02)
1913        May 30, Conclusion of the First Balkan War. The Treaty of London ended First Balkan War, and the Second Balkan War began.
    (HN, 5/30/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1913        Jul 30, Conclusion of 2nd Balkan War. [see Aug 10]
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1913        Sep 23, Serbian troops marched into Albania.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1913        Oct 18, Austrian-Hungary demanded that Serbia and Albania leave.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1913        Nov, Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War. The Great Powers recognized an independent Albanian state. Demographics were ignored, however, and half of the territories inhabited by Albanians (such as Kosova and Chameria) were divided among Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1914        Mar 6, German Prince Wilhelm de Wied was crowned as King of Albania. He was installed as head of the Albanian state by the International Control Commission. His rule ended within six months, with the outbreak of World War I.
    (HN, 3/6/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1918         Dec, Albanian leaders met at Durrës to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace Conference. When World War I ended the Italian armies occupied most of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupied the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers began a struggle for dominance over Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1918        Kosovo became part of the newly created Yugoslavia and was dominated by a Serbian monarchy until WW II.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)

1919         Serbs attacked Albanian cities; Albanians adopted guerilla warfare. Albania was denied official representation at the Paris Peace Conference; British, French and Greek negotiators decided to divide Albania among Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia. This decision was vetoed by American president Wilson.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1920         Jan, Albanian leaders met in Lushnjë and rejected the partitioning of Albania by the Treaty of Paris. They created a bicameral parliament and warned that Albanians would take up arms in defense of territory.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1920        Feb, Albanian government moved to Tirana, which became the capital.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1920        Sep, Albania forced Italy to withdraw its troops and abandon claims on Albanian territory.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1920        Dec, Albania was admitted to the League of Nations as sovereign and independent state.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1921         Nov, Yugoslav troops invaded Albania; The League of Nations commission forced Yugoslav withdrawal and reaffirmed Albania's 1913 borders.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1921        Dec, The Popular Party, led by Xhafer Ypi, formed a government with Ahmet Zogu as minister of internal affairs.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1922         Aug, The ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople recognized the Autochephalous Albanian Orthodox Church.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1922        Sep, Ahmet Zogu, a tribal warlord, assumed the position of Prime Minister.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(www, Albania, 1998)

1923         Albania's Sunni Muslims broke ties with Constantinople and pledged primary allegiance to native country.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1923        Sep 26, Sir Aubrey Herbert (b.1880), Englishman, died. He worked for Albania's independence and was twice offered the throne of Albania. He authored the WW 1 journal "Mons, Anzac & Kut."
    (www.ku.edu/carrie/texts/world_war_I/Mons/mons.htm)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.16)

1924         Mar, Zogu's party won elections for the National Assembly, but Zogu stepped down after a financial scandal and an assassination attempt.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1924        Jul, A peasant-backed insurgency won control of Tirana; Fan S. Noli became Prime Minister; Zogu fled to Yugoslavia.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1924        Dec, Zogu, backed by Yugoslav army, returned to power and began to smother parliamentary democracy; Noli fled to Italy.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1926         Italy and Albania signed the First Treaty of Tirana, which guaranteed Zogu's political position and Albania's boundaries.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1927        Mar 10, Albania mobilized under the threat of Serbia, Croatia & Slovenes.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1928        Sep 1, Albania became a kingdom. Ahmed Zogu proclaimed Albania to be a monarchy and established himself as "His Majesty King Zog I." Zogu pressured the parliament to dissolve itself, and a new constituent assembly declared Albania a kingdom with Zogu as Zog I, "King of the Albanians." He obtained Italian aid for modernization and weakened the constitution to arrange for his son to succeed him. The National Assembly gave him a title that translates into "prince."
    (CO, Grolier's / Albania)(SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(www, Albania, 1998)(SC, 9/1/02)

1931        King Zog escaped an assassination attempt in Vienna.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1931         Zog refused to renew the First Treaty of Tirana. Italians continued with political and economic pressure.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1934        Jun 23, Italy gained the right to colonize Albania after defeating the country.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1934         After Albania signed trade agreements with Greece and Yugoslavia. Italy suspended economic support, then attempted to threaten Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1935         Mussolini presented a gift of 3,000,000 gold frances to Albania; other economic aid followed.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1937        Italy occupied Albania. [see Apr 8, 1939]
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A20)

1938        Jan 1, King Zog of Albania met Geraldine Apponyi (1915-2002). They became engaged 10 days later.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1938        Apr 27, King Zog of Albania married Geraldine Apponyi (22) of Hungary.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

1939         Mar, Mussolini delivered an ultimatum to Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1939        Apr 7, Italy invaded Albania, which offered only token resistance. Less than a week later, Italy annexed Albania. [see Apr 8]
    (AP, Internet, 4/7/99)

1939        Apr 8, Italy, under Fascist dictatorship led by Benito Mussolini seized the country of Albania. The Albanian parliament voted to unite Albania with Italy; King Zog fled to Greece.  [see Apr 7]
    (HN, 4/8/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1939-1943    During the 4 years of Axis rule the province of Kosovo was annexed to the rest of Albania.
    (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)

1940        Apr 12, Italy annexed Albania.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1940        Oct 28, Italy invaded Greece, launching six divisions on four fronts from occupied Albania. Greece successfully resisted Italy's attack.
    (AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)(MC, 10/28/01)

1941        Jan 4, On the Greek-Albanian front, the Greeks launched an attack towards Valona from Berat to Klisura against the Italians.
    (HN, 1/4/00)

1941        Apr 6, German troops invaded Yugoslavia and Greece. Italian and Albanian forces attacked and jointly occupied Yugoslavia. Germany, with support of Italy and other allies defeated Greece and Yugoslavia.
    (WUD, 1944, p.1683)(SFC, 4/5/97, p.A20)(www, Albania, 1998)

1941        Apr 17, Yugoslavia surrendered to Germany ending 11 days of futile resistance against the invading German Wehrmacht. More than 300,000 Yugoslav officers and soldiers were taken prisoner. Italian and Albanian forces attacked and jointly occupied Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A20)(AP, 4/17/97)(MC, 4/17/02)

1941        Oct, Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav communist leader, directed the organizing of Albanian communists.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1941        Nov, The Albanian Communist Party was founded; Enver Hoxha became the first secretary.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1942         Sep, The Communist Party organized a National Liberation Movement as a popular front resistance organization.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1942        Oct, Non-communist nationalist groups formed to resist the Italian occupation.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1943         Aug, Italy's surrender to Allied forces weakened Italian hold on Albania; Albanian resistance fighters overwhelmed five Italian divisions.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1943        Sep, German forces invaded and occupied Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1944         Jan, Communist Partisans, supplied with British weapons, gained control of southern Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1944        May, Communists met to organize an Albanian government; Hoxha became chairman of the executive committee and supreme commander of the Army of National Liberation. Enver Hoxha was the leader of the Balkan nation of Albania from 1944 until 1983. Hoxha, leader of a national liberation movement during Italy's occupation of Albania in World War II, came to power when the Communist insurgency seized control of the country in 1944, beginning nearly 40 years of harsh Stalinist rule. Albania, which borders on Greece and Yugoslavia, eventually broke with the Soviet Union and later China over ideological issues and by the time of the death of Hoxha in 1983 it had become one of the most politically and socially isolated countries in the world.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(HNQ, 1/11/00)

1944        Jul, Communist forces entered central and northern Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1944        Oct, Communists established provisional government with Hoxha as prime minister.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1944        Nov 29, Albania was liberated from Nazi control (National Day). Germans withdrew from Tirana and communists entered the capital.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(MC, 11/29/01)

1944        Dec, A Communist provisional government adopted laws allowing state regulation of commercial enterprises, foreign and domestic trade.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1944-1983    Enver Hoxha was the leader of the Balkan nation of Albania. Hoxha, leader of a national liberation movement during Italy's occupation of Albania in World War II, came to power when the Communist insurgency seized control of the country in 1944, beginning nearly 40 years of harsh Stalinist rule. Albania, which borders on Greece and Yugoslavia, eventually broke with the Soviet Union and later China over ideological issues and by the time of the death of Hoxha in 1983 it had become one of the most politically and socially isolated countries in the world.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A7)(HNQ, 1/29/99)

1945         Jan, The Albanian Communist provisional government of Enver Hoxha agreed to restore Kosova to Yugoslavia under Tito as an autonomous region; Yugoslav leaders brought Kosova under marshal law. Tribunals began in Albania to condemn thousands of "war criminals" and "enemies of the people" to death or prison. The Communist regime began to nationalize industry, transportation, forests, pastures.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)

1945        Dec, Elections were held for the People's Assembly. Only members of the Democratic Front were permitted to participate.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1946        Jul, Albania signed a treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia; Yugoslav advisors and grain began pouring into Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1946        Oct, British destroyers hit mines off Albania's coast. The United Nations and the International Court of Justice condemned Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1946         The People's Assembly proclaimed Albania a "people's republic"; purges of non-communists from government positions began. The People's Assembly adopted a new constitution. Enver Hoxha became prime minister, defense minister, foreign minister and commander-in-chief.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1948        Jun, Cominform expelled Yugoslavia; Albanian leaders launched an anti-Yugoslav propaganda campaign, cut economic ties, and forced Yugoslav advisors to leave. Later on the treaty of friendship with Yugoslavia was abrogated; Hoxha began purging high-ranking party members accused of "Titoism"; Soviet Union began economic aid to Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1948        Nov, Communist Party of Albania renamed itself the Party of Labor of Albania.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1948         Albanian Communist Party leaders voted to merge Albanian and Yugoslav economies and militaries.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1949        Jun 10, In Albania Koci Xoxe, former Communist vice-premier, and a number of other officials were convicted as Yugoslav agents. Xoxe was executed on Jun 11. As arrests continued large numbers of Albanians fled the country.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1191)

1950        Feb 13, Albania recognized Ho Chi Minh's Vietnamese government, becoming the sixth Eastern bloc country to do so.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1950         Britain and United States inserted anti-Communist guerillas into Albania; all were unsuccessful.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1952        The Alba Films complex was built to produce Communist propaganda.
    (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A6)

1955        May 14, Representatives from eight Communist bloc countries: Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania, signed the Warsaw Pact in Poland. Andras Hegedues signed for Hungary.
    (AP, 5/14/97)(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)(MC, 5/14/02)

1960         Albania sided with China on a Sino-Soviet ideological dispute; consequently Soviet economic support was curtailed and Chinese aid was increased.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1961        Apr 9, Zog I (65), [Ahmed Zogu], King of Albania (1925-39), died in exile in France. His son, Leka Zogu, was sworn in as king by the government in exile.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(MC, 4/9/02)

1961        Albanian leader Enver Hoxha broke with Nikita Kruschev over Kruschev's repudiation of Stalin's legacy. Diplomatic relations were severed and Soviet aid to Albania was ended. For a time Albania found an ally in China.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1967         Hoxha regime conducted a violent campaign to extinguish religious life in Albania; by year's end over two thousand religious buildings were closed or converted to other uses. Albania was declared "the world's first atheist country," religious leaders were imprisoned and executed.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(USAT, 2/11/97, p.5A)(WA, 1997,CD)   

1968        Sep 12, Albania withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. Albania condemned the Aug Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia, subsequently Albania withdrew from the Warsaw Pact.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(www, Albania, 1998)

1968        Sep 13, Albania left the Warsaw pact. [see Sep 12]
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1974        In Yugoslavia under Tito a decentralized federal system allowed the Kosovo region to develop its own security, judiciary, defense, foreign relations and social control. Mahmut Bakalli drafted a constitution that gave the region a status equivalent in most respects to the other republics of Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.A8)(SFC, 11/11/98, p.A16)(www, Albania, 1998)(SFC, 3/27/99, p.A13)

1975        Enver Hoxha embarked on a massive bunker building program.
    (WSJ, 5/10/99, p.A1)

1976         A new constitution was adopted. Albania became a "people's socialist republic."
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1978        Jul 7, China cut off all aid to Albania after a dispute and left it completely isolated.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(CO, GAAE/Albania)(www, Albania, 1998

1981        In Yugoslavia Serbs cracked down on an ethnic Albanian uprising in Kosovo and left 80 people dead. Massive demonstrations occurred in Kosova. Demonstrators demanded that Kosova become a republic in Yugoslavia. Yugoslav police and army presence was increased in Kosova.
    (SFC, 7/28/98, p.A9)(www, Albania, 1998)

1985        Stalinist dictator Enver Hoxha died. He was succeeded by Ramiz Alia.
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.A1)(SFC,10/21/97, p.A13)(www, Albania, 1998)

1987        Dec, Slobodan Milosevic, head of a nationalist faction, staged a palace coup and purged Pres. Ivan Stambolic over his moderate treatment of ethnic Albanians. Milosevic had risen to power as head of Serbia's Communist Party
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 12/27/96, p.B3)(SFC, 7/24/97, p.C3)

1989         Alia, addressing the Eighth Plenum of the Central Committee, signaled that radical changes to the economic system were necessary.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1989         The Milosevic regime in Yugoslavia made constitutional changes to consolidate power over the provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. Kosovo, whose 1.9 million people are 90% Albanian, lost its autonomy and was placed under Serbian rule. The constitution passed without the approval of the parliament of Kosova. The Serbs fired most Albanians and closed many enterprises. Muslim unrest followed and Kosovo was occupied. 90% of the population of Kosovo was made up of some 2.2 million ethnic Albanians.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A13) (SFC,12/10/97, p.C2) (www, Albania, 1998)   

1990         Jan, Demonstrations at Shkodra forced authorities to declare a state of emergency.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1990        Jul, Young people demonstrated against the regime in Tirana, 5,000 citizens sought refuge in foreign embassies. Albanian delegates of the parliament of Kosova declared the independence of Kosova from Serbia. Subsequently Serbia abolished the parliament and government of Kosova, closed down the only Albanian daily, and took over the state-owned television and radio.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1990        Aug, The government abandoned its monopoly on foreign commerce and began to open Albania to foreign trade.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1990        Nov, Private religious practice began to be allowed.
    (WA, 1997,CD)

1990        Dec 8, Tirana University students demonstrated in the streets and called for the dictatorship to end. Ramiz Alia met with the students 4 days later; a multiparty system was introduced; the Democratic Party, the first opposition party was established; the regime authorized political pluralism.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(SFC, 12/18/00, p.E2)

1991         Jan, The first opposition newspaper, Rilindja Demokratike, began publishing.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Mar 31, Albania offered a multi-party election for the first time in 50 years. The Labor Party won over 67 percent of votes, while the Democratic Party won around 30 percent.
    (HN, 3/31/98)(www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Apr, Alia was reelected as President. The Assembly passed a law on Major Constitutional Provisions which provided for fundamental human rights and separation of powers and invalidated the 1976 constitution.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Jun 22, An estimated 200,000 Albanians turned out in the capital Tirana to cheer visiting US Secretary of State James Baker.
    (AP, 6/22/01)

1991        Jun, Prime Minister Fatos Nano and the rest of the cabinet resigned after trade unions called for a general strike to protest worsening economic conditions and the killing of opposition demonstrators in Shkodra. The Party of Labor was renamed to Socialist Party of Albania. Albania was accepted as a full member of the CSCE.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Aug, Some 18,000 Albanians crossed the Adriatic to seek asylum in Italy; most were returned. The People's Assembly passed a law allowing private ownership, foreign investment and private employment of workers.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Sep, A referendum was held in Kosova. Over 90 percent of voters voted for independence.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Dec, The Democratic Party withdrew ministers after accusing communists of blocking reform. Alia set up a new government headed by Vilson Ahmeti and set March 1992 for new elections.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1991        Archbishop Anastasios (61) was sent to Albania by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople to report on the country's religious situation.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, Par p.4)

1991        As Communism fell apart thousands of Albanians fled their country. They crossed the Adriatic in boats to seek asylum in Italy. Lawlessness and unrest gripped the country. Half the population was unemployed.
    (CO, Grolier's/ Albania)

1991        Italian authorities allowed several ships with about 25,000 Albanians into the port of Bari. When another wave of immigrants showed up a few months later the policy was reversed and they were sent back home.
    (NG, 5/93, p.104)

1992        Jan 31,The first Miss Albania was crowned.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)

1992        Mar, In Albania the Democratic Party of Sali Berisha was elected with 92 of a 140 seats in the legislature in the midst of economic freefall and social chaos. Restoration of the economy and political system was a major task and foreign assistance was required to maintain the food supply. Berisha, a cardiologist, was elected president.
    (CO, Grolier's / Albania)(USAT, 2/11/97, p.A1)(www, Albania, 1998)
1992         Mar, Elections were held in Kosova; the Democratic League of Kosova won the majority of votes; the elections were called illegal by the Serbian regime.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1992        Sep, Former President Alia and eighteen other former communist officials, including Nexhmije Hoxha, wife of late dictator Hoxha, were arrested and charged with corruption and other offenses.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1992        The US set up a new Embassy in Tirana and sheltered CIA agents.
    (WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A10)

1992-1999    A fifth of the population left Albania. Most moved to Western Europe to live as undocumented aliens.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A6)
   
1994        Former president Ramiz Alia, successor of Stalinist dictator Enver Hoxha, was sentenced to 9 years in prison for abuse of power. He was later freed on amnesty and then re-arrested on new charges. He fled the country in Mar, 1997.
    (SFC,10/21/97, p.A13)

1994        Pres. Sali Berisha drafted a constitution that required the head of the Orthodox Church to be born in Albania and live there for 20 years. It was defeated in a referendum.
    (SSFC, 7/27/03, Par p.4)

1996        Feb 26, A car bomb in Albania killed 5 people and wounded 30 outside a supermarket in the center of Tirana. Two former senior officials of the disbanded Communist era secret police were arrested shortly after the blast.
    (WSJ, 2/27/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 27, Opposition parties accused the ruling democrats of election irregularities and pulled out of the parliamentary voting process.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A7)

1996        May 28, Sali Berisha, Pres. of Albania, banned an opposition rally. Many who defied the ban were seriously beaten. Berisha was supported by Washington for discouraging the Albanian majority in Kosovo from demanding autonomy from Yugoslavia. He also allowed American military planes to access Albanian air bases.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, p.A7)

1996        Jun 20, In Albania a court convicted 3 top ex-Communist officials for deporting more than 70 dissidents when they headed regional Communist administrations. The European Parliament urged Albania to hold another vote due to balloting irregularities in the May 26 and June 2 elections.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A13)

1996        Jul 5, Vital exports from Vlora, Albania, was sending 6 tons a week of live frogs to Lyon, France. "But how long will this resource last?"
    (SFC, 7/5/96, p.A12)

1996        Aug 8, Hourly wages were listed at $0.37 per hour.
    (WSJ, 8/8/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 21, The ruling Democratic Party claimed a landslide victory in local elections.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)

1996        Nov 7, Former Communist secret policemen were blamed for a bomb that injured a top judge and his daughter. The attack came after an appeals court upheld prison sentences against 9 officials of the former Communist regime.
    (WSJ, 11/7/96, p.A1)

1996        Dec, The first anti-government protests due to the collapse of investment funds were staged in Skanderbeg Square in Tirana.
    (SFC, 3/17/97, p.C1)

1997        Jan 19, In Albania, riot police beat demonstrators demanding restitution for money lost in pyramid schemes. Some 20 deposit-collecting companies had come to dominate the economy under Berisha's rule. Some $1.2 billion in Albanians' savings was wiped out.
    (AP, 1/19/98)(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)

1997        Jan 25, In Lushnja thousands of people lost money in pyramid investment schemes and took to the streets in protest. Some one million Kalashnikov rifles were stolen from government depots.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97, p.A14)(SFC, 7/26/97, p.A12)

1997        Mar 1, Albania's Pres. Sali Berisha said that his cabinet ministers would resign and be replaced by leaders acceptable to the opposition .
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.A14)

1997        Mar 2, A state of emergency with a curfew, press censorship and police orders to kill was declared in Albania and at least 4 demonstrators were killed in Vlora in clashes with police.
    (SFEC, 3/3/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A14)

1997        Mar 4, Two Albanian air force pilots diverted their MiG-15 fighter to southern Italy after being ordered to fire on civilians. Tanks were reported in Gjirokastra and in Vlore, the hotel complex owned by Vefa, the biggest investment scheme still officially intact, was destroyed along with 6 factories.
    (SFC, 3/5/97, p.A8)

1997        Mar 9, Albania's Pres. Sali Berisha proposed a new government of reconciliation to represent all political parties and offered to set new elections.
    (SFC, 3/10/97, p.A8)

1997        Mar 14, Chaos and anarchy spread and some 23 people were reported killed across the country. The US and Italy were airlifting citizens out of the country. Near the Macedonian border a $10 million cigarette plant was burned down.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A10)

1997        Mar 16, Amnesty was granted to 51 people including former premier Fatos Nano.
    (SFC, 3/18/97, p.A11)

1997        Mar 28, The UN Security Council agreed to send a multinational force to Albania to protect the delivery of humanitarian aid.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)

1997        Mar 29, Italian rescue workers searched the waters for survivors of a collision of an Albanian patrol boat packed with Albanians and an Italian Navy ship. Arguments raged as to who was at fault and there were 4 confirmed deaths. Albanian prime minister Bashkim Fino demanded an investigation.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.A18)

1997        Apr 30, A huge blast killed 22 Albanians in the village of Selize. They were stripping the bronze casings of mortar shells stored in a cave.
    (SFC, 5/1/97, p.A13)

1997        Jun 12, Violence broke out in Elbasan and 13 people were injured during a campaign stop by Pres. Berisha.
    (SFC, 6/13/97, p.A14)

1997        Jun 26, Gunmen fired at the presidential motorcade of Pres. Berisha, who was on a campaign rally. Three guards were wounded. Nearly 1500 people have been killed since March when protests over the failed pyramid schemes turned into armed rebellion.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A12)

1997        Jun 29, The rival ex-Communists claimed to have beaten Pres. Berisha in the elections. Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano claimed his leftist coalition had won 73 of 115 contested seats. Early returns on a referendum showed voters favoring the return of would-be-king Leka Zogu. Later results showed that the referendum was defeated by a 2:1 margin.
    (WSJ, 6/30/97, p.A1)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A10)(SFC, 7/4/97, p.A12)

1997        Jul 6, Three people died as the 2nd round of elections were completed. The Socialist gained 12 more seats versus 5 more for the Democrats.
    (SFC, 7/7/97, p.A10)

1997        Jul 24, A 5-month long curfew was lifted and Rexhep Mejdani, the secretary-general of the Socialist Party and former physics professor, was elected President by the Parliament. Since Jan. some 1,800 killings had occurred.
    (SFC, 7/25/97, p.A11)

1997        Jul 25, In Albania the new Socialist led government was sworn in while a gang battle in Berat left 10 people dead.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)

1997        Aug 12, It was reported that the last Italian peacekeeping troops left but that some Greek troops were still based near Tirana.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 5, In India Mother Teresa (b.1910), the Calcutta nun who worked on behalf of the destitute, died of heart failure in Calcutta. Britain's Queen Elizabeth II broke the royal reticence over Princess Diana's death, calling her "a remarkable person" in a televised address. In 2003 Albania declared 2004 to be "Mother Teresa Year" and set aside Oct. 19 as a national holiday in her honor. "It is Christmas every time you let God love others through you ... yes, it is Christmas every time you smile at your brother and offer him your hand."
    (SFC, 9/6/97, p.A1)(AP, 9/5/98)(AP, 9/12/03)

1997        Sep 6, Albania's Socialist government dismissed 17 generals.
    (WSJ, 9/8/97, p.A16)

1997        Sep 18, In Albania a Socialist lawmaker shot and wounded a rival from the opposition Democrats inside the parliament building.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct, In Albania Fatos Nano of the Socialist Party was named Prime Minister.
    (SFC, 3/17/98, p.B2)

1998        Jan 23, Troops stormed into Shkorda to end 2 days of looting and burnings. Rioters were demanding the release from jail of 2 men loyal to former Pres. Berisha. Berisha denounced the violence and ties to the jailed men.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A10)

1998        Apr 22, Yugoslavian (Serbian) troops claimed to have killed 23 ethnic Albanian infiltrators in the border region in Kosovo.
    (SFC, 4/24/98, p.A16)

1998        Apr, Ilir Konushevci, a KLA commander, was ambushed and killed outside Tropoja in northern Albania. He had recently accused Xhavit Haliti, a lieutenant of Hashim Thaci, of buying grenades for $2 and selling them to the KLA for $7.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.A12)

1998        May 28, NATO Ministers agreed to help Albania and Macedonia strengthen their border patrols.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A16)

1998        Jun 25, Albanian security personnel (SHIK) under CIA guidance arrested Shawki Salama Attiya, a Tirana cell forger. Over the next month they made a successful raids on more suspected members of the Egyptian Jihad terrorist organization. The suspected terrorists were turned over to anti-terrorist officials in Egypt, where they delivered forced confessions following torture.
    (SFC, 8/13/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A1)

1998        Aug 6, NATO set exercises in Albania for Aug 17-22 to show force against the Serb offensive in Kosovo.
    (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 17, NATO forces began a 5-day exercise in Albania as a threat to Serbia.
    (WSJ, 8/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Sep 12, Democratic Party leader Azem Hajdari was assassinated
    (WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A1)(USAT, 9/15/98, p.12A)

1998        Sep 13, Opposition supporters burned the Tirana office of Premier Nanos and sent the prime minister and his cabinet fleeing.
    (SFC, 9/14/98, p.A12)

1998        Sep 14, In Albania fighting continued in Tirana. Anti-government protestors stormed public buildings and 3 Berisha supporters were killed in a counter-attack.
    (WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A1)(USAT, 9/15/98, p.12A)(SFC, 9/15/98, p.A6)

1998        Sep 15, Sali Berisha surrendered 2 tanks posted outside his headquarters following threats of force. The government declared the unrest an attempted coup and ordered a criminal investigation.
    (SFC, 9/16/98, p.A11)

1998        Sep 28, In Albania Prime Minister Fatos Nano resigned following 2 weeks of rioting. Pandeli Majko (31), general secretary of the Socialist Party, was the party's candidate for prime minister. The opposition called for an interim government and new elections.
    (SFC, 9/29/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/30/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 22, In Albania the Socialist government claimed to win a referendum on the nation's first post-Communist constitution.
    (WSJ, 11/23/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 27, A boat of illegal immigrants from Albania sank off the coast of Italy and at least 3 people were killed including a 1-year-old child. 4 people were missing from the boat that carried 17.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.A10)

1998        Dec 3, Yugoslav border guards killed 8 ethnic Albanians as they tried to cross the border into Kosovo.
    (WSJ, 12/3/98, p.A1)

1998        Noel Malcolm published "Kosovo: A Short History," a history of the troubled region and Albania. Malcolm earlier wrote "Bosnia: A Short History."
    (WSJ, 5/5/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 9/6/98, BR p.8)

1999        Feb, Clan leaders in Vlore boasted that two-thirds of all automobiles in Albania were stolen.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A6)

1999        Mar 29, Albania and Macedonia appealed for help as thousands of refugees fled Kosovo on the 6th day of bombing. NATO said Serbs were targeting ethnic Albanian leadership for executions and the US accused Milosevic of "crimes against humanity."
    (WSJ, 3/30/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 1, Pres. Rexhep Meidani said NATO should help Kosovo seize independence.
    (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.A9)

1999        Apr 2, Hashim Thaci, a leading nationalist politician, named a new government with himself in charge. Moderates loyal to Ibrahim Rugova were excluded after no candidates were put forth.
    (SFC, 4/3/99, p.A6)

1999        Apr 4, NATO dropped more bombs on downtown Belgrade and said that it would send some 8,000 troops into Albania to help Kosovo refugees. The Freedom Bridge over the Danube at Novi Sad was destroyed. The US announced that it would send 24 Apache helicopter gunships to attack Serbian troops and tanks in Kosovo. Some 30,000 refugees crossed into Albania in the last 24-hour period.
    (SFEC, 4/4/99, p.A1,12)(SFC, 4/5/99, p.A1,10)

1999        Apr 7, In Albania the Israeli government set up a hospital about this time at the Brazde refugee camp, home to some 25,000 refugees.
    (SFC, 4/14/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 11, Albania decided to hand over control of its airspace, ports and military infrastructure to NATO and to accept more NATO troops.
    (SFC, 4/12/99, p.A17)

1999        Apr 14, Some 3,000 refugees reached the border of Macedonia and another 7,000 were expected. Another 3,000 arrived in Albania. An estimated 18,000 were making their way to Montenegro. Over the last 3 weeks 305,000 arrived in Albania, 121,000 in Macedonia, and 61,000 in Montenegro.
    (SFC, 4/15/99, p.A12)

1999        Apr 16, It was reported that Albanian bandits were victimizing refugees and had robbed border monitors and foreign journalists at gunpoint.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A18)
1999        Apr 16, Thousands of refugees poured out of Kosovo as NATO blasted oil refineries, military barracks and airports around Yugoslavia. At least 5,000 refugees crossed into Macedonia, and 8,000 into Albania. Some 100,000 were believed to be enroute to Macedonia.
    (SFC, 4/17/99, p.A1)

1999        Apr 20, NATO bombing continued in Yugoslavia. The UN refugee agency in Macedonia declared its camps full beyond capacity and left 2,000 to 3,000 refugees at the border. Another few thousand crossed the border to the hamlet of Milana. The border with Albania was again opened but only a few crossed over.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A1,10)

1999        Apr 30, The AP reported that almost every journalist who had gone to the refugee camp at Bajram Curri was robbed.
    (SFC, 5/11/99, p.A6)

1999        May 4, Allied forces bombed fixed and mobile targets and downed a Yugoslav MigG-29. The US considered freeing 2 prisoners of war and another 5,000 refugees crossed into Albania.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A12)

1999        May 5, Two US crew members were killed when an Apache helicopter crashed in Albania during training. Chief Warrant Officer David A. Gibbs (38), of Massillon, Ohio, and Chief Warrant Officer Kevin L. Reichert (28), of Chetek, Wis., crashed in a mountainous region 50 miles from Task Force Hawk base.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/6/99, p.A10)

1999        May 8, An estimated 7,500 Kosovars crossed the border into Albania.
    (SFEC, 5/9/99, p.A17)

1999        Oct 25, In Albania Prime Minister Pandeli Majko planned to resign due to his loss to become the Socialist Party leader earlier in the month.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.B2)

1999        Dec 30-1999 Dec 31, A rubber raft with some 59 refugees capsized while trying to cross the Adriatic between Albania and Italy. One body was found in Jan.
    (SFC, 1/19/00, p.A14)

2000        Nov 29, In Albania police made a brief arrest of President Sali Berisha the day after a riot in Tropoja where 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 11/30/00, p.C7)

2001        Jun 24, Albania parliamentary elections were marred by violent incidents. The ruling Socialists claimed victory.
    (WSJ, 6/25/01, p.A1)

2002        Jan 29, Albania's PM Ilir Meta (32) resigned following months of disputes with party leaders.
    (SFC, 1/30/02, p.A9)

2002        Jun 24, Alfred Moisiu, a 72-year-old retired general and former defense minister, was elected president of Albania by a comfortable majority in parliament. He was the only candidate.
    (AP, 6/24/02)

2002        Oct 22, Geraldine of Albania (87), the wife of King Zog (d.1961), died in Tirana.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A17)

2003        Oct 27, UN police and NATO-led peacekeepers near Pristina, Serbia, arrested 5 former ethnic Albanian rebels for alleged war crimes in Kosovo.
    (AP, 10/28/03)

2004        Jan 9, An inflatable speedboat packed with Albanian migrants trying to sneak into Italy sank in up to 20-foot high waves and strong winds off Albania's coast, killing 21 people.
    (AP, 1/10/04)

2004        Feb 21, In Albania some 6-20 thousand people marched in Tirana in opposition to PM Fatos Nano and his Socialist-led government.
    (SSFC, 2/22/04, p.A3)

2004        Mar 20, NATO-led forces surrounded Kosovska Mitrovica in efforts to separate ethnic Albanians and Serbs and prevent a resurgence of attacks that killed 28 people and wounded 600. Ethnic Albanians looted villages and apartments abandoned by Serb civilians. Some 110 homes and at least 16 Serb Orthodox churches were destroyed by arson.
    (AP, 3/20/04)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.47)

2004        Dec 7, The mayor of Albania's capital Tirana, painter Edi Rama (40), was elected "World Mayor 2004" in an Internet competition organized by a London-based NGO.
    (AFP, 12/7/04)

2004        Dec 28, Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia gave political support to a $1.2 billion private trans-Balkan pipeline that will allow Russian and Caspian crude oil to avoid Turkish waters.
    (WSJ, 12/29/04, p.A7)

2005        Mar 31, A US C-130 airplane crashed near the remote village of Rovie and all 9 Americans onboard were killed in mountainous southern Albania during a joint exercise.
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2005        Apr 7, Riza Malaj (34), Albania's most wanted man, blew himself about this time up while fishing with dynamite. He lost both hands, badly hurt his eyes and suffered serious wounds all over his body while trying to catch trout.
    (AP, 4/11/05)

2005        Jun 3, Albanian novelist Ismail Kadare (69) won the first international version of Britain's prestigious Man Booker literary prize. Kadare became famous in his homeland with the 1963 publication of his first novel, "The General of the Dead Army." His other works include "The Concert," and "The Palace of Dreams."
    (AP, 6/3/05)

Source: http://timelines.ws/countries/ALBANIA.HTML

www.timelines.ws
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                                         Historic Albania

The Albanians are reputedly descendants of Illyrian and Thracian tribes that settled the region in ancient times. The area then comprised parts of Illyria and Epirus and was known to the ancient Greeks for its mines. The coastal towns, Epidamnus (Durrës) and Apollonia, were colonies of Corcyra (Kérkira) and Corinth, but the interior formed an independent kingdom that reached its height in the 3d cent. A.D.

After the division (395) of the Roman Empire, Albania passed to Byzantium. While nominally (until 1347) under Byzantine rule, N Albania was invaded (7th cent.) by the Serbs, and S Albania was annexed (9th cent.) by Bulgaria. In 1014, Emperor Basil II retook S Albania, which remained in the Byzantine Empire until it passed to Epirus in 1204. Venice founded coastal colonies at present-day Shkodër and Lezhë in the 11th cent., and in 1081 the Normans began to contest Byzantine control of Albania. Norman efforts were continued by the Neapolitan Angevins; in 1272, Charles I of Naples was proclaimed king of Albania. In the 14th cent., however, the Serbs under Stephen DuÅ¡an conquered most of the country.
Ottoman Rule

After Dušan's death (1355), Albania was ruled by native chieftains until the Turks began their conquests in the 15th cent. In return for serving the Turks, a son of one of these chieftains received the title Iskender Bey (Lord Alexander), which in Albanian became Scanderbeg. Later, however, he led the Albanian resistance to Turkish domination and, after his death in 1468, was immortalized as Albania's national hero. Supported by Venice and Naples, Albania continued to struggle against the Turks until 1478, when the country passed under Ottoman rule.

Many Albanians distinguished themselves in the Turkish army and bureaucracy; others were made pashas and beys and had considerable local autonomy. In the early 19th cent., Ali Pasha ruled Albania like a sovereign until he overreached and was assassinated. Under Turkish rule Islam became the predominant religion of Albania. However, the Albanian highlanders, never fully subjected, were able to retain their tribal organizations. Economically, the country stagnated under Ottoman rule, and numerous local revolts flared. A cultural awakening began in the 19th cent., and Albanian nationalism grew in the aftermath of the Treaty of San Stefano (1877), which Russia imposed on the Turks and which gave large parts of Albania to the Balkan Slavic nations. The European Great Powers intensified their struggle for influence in the Balkans during the years that followed.
National Independence

The first of the Balkan Wars, in 1912, gave the Albanians an opportunity to proclaim their independence. During the Second Balkan War (1913), Albania was occupied by the Serbs. A conference of Great Power ambassadors defined the country's borders in 1913 and destroyed the dream of a Greater Albania by ceding large tracts to Montenegro, Serbia, and Greece. The ambassadors at the conference placed Albania under their guarantee and named William, prince of Wied, as its ruler. Within a year he had fled, as World War I erupted and Albania became a battleground for contending Serb, Montenegrin, Greek, Italian, Bulgarian, and Austrian forces.

Secret treaties drafted during the war called for Albania's dismemberment, but Albanian resistance and the principle of self-determination as promoted by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson helped to restore an independent Albania. In 1920 the Congress of Lushnje reasserted Albanian independence. The early postwar years witnessed a struggle between conservative landlords led by Ahmed Zogu and Western-influenced liberals under Bishop Fan S. Noli. After Noli's forces seized power in 1924, Zogu fled to Yugoslavia, where he secured foreign support for an army to invade Albania. In 1925, Albania was proclaimed a republic under his presidency; in 1928 he became King Zog.

Italy, whose political and economic influence in Albania had steadily increased, invaded the country in 1939, forcing Zog into exile and bringing Albania under Italian hegemony. The Albanian puppet government declared war on the Allies in 1940; but resistance groups, notably the extreme leftist partisans under Enver Hoxha, waged guerrilla warfare against the occupying Axis armies. In 1943–44, a civil war also raged between the partisans and non-Communist forces within Albania. Albania was liberated from the Axis invaders without the aid of the Red Army or of direct Soviet military assistance, and received most of its war matériel from the Anglo-American command in Italy.
Albanian Communism

In late 1944, Hoxha's partisans seized most of Albania and formed a provisional government. The Communists held elections (Dec., 1945) with an unopposed slate of candidates and, in 1946, proclaimed Albania a republic with Hoxha as premier. From 1944 to 1948, Albania maintained close relations with Yugoslavia, which had helped to establish the Albanian Communist party. After Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia broke with Stalin, Albania became a satellite of the USSR. Albania's disapproval of de-Stalinization and of Soviet-Yugoslav rapprochement led in 1961 to a break between Moscow and Tiranë.

Chinese influence and economic aid replaced Soviet, and Albania became China's only ally in Communist Eastern Europe. Albania ceased active participation in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) and, after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, withdrew from the Warsaw Treaty Organization. In the early 1970s continuing Soviet hostility and Albanian isolation led the Hoxha regime to make overtures to neighboring Yugoslavia, Greece, and Italy. The alliance with China lasted until 1977 when Hoxha broke ties in protest of China's liberalization and the U.S.-China rapprochement.

Ramiz Alia became president in 1982 and, following Hoxha's death in 1985, first secretary of the Albanian Communist party. Alia began to strengthen ties with other European nations, notably Italy and Greece, and restored diplomatic relations with the USSR (1990) and the United States (1991). The government began to allow tourism and promote foreign trade, and permitted the formation of the opposition Democratic party.
Attempts at Democracy

In the elections of Mar., 1991, the Communists defeated the Democrats, but popular discontent over poor living conditions and an exodus of Albanian refugees to Greece and Italy forced the cabinet to resign shortly thereafter. In new elections (1992) the Socialists (Communists) lost to the Democrats, Alia resigned, and Democratic leader Sali Berisha became Albania's first democratically elected president. With unemployment and inflation accelerating, the new government took steps toward a free-market economy. Although the economic picture showed some signs of improvement during the 1990s, poverty and unemployment remained widespread. The Berisha government prosecuted former Communist leaders, including Ramiz Alia, who was convicted of abuses of power and jailed. In 1994, Albania joined the NATO Partnership for Peace plan, and in 1995, it was admitted to the Council of Europe.

Berisha's party claimed a landslide victory in the 1996 general elections, which were marked by irregularities. In Mar., 1997, following weeks of rioting over collapsed pyramid investment schemes, Prime Minister Aleksander Meksi, a Democrat, resigned. Berisha, however, was elected to a new five-year term and named Bashkim Fino, a Socialist, to head a new coalition government. Parliament declared a state of emergency as rebels gained control of large sections of southern Albania and threatened the capital. Thousands of Albanians fled to Italy, and an international force from eight European nations arrived in Apr., 1997, to help restore order. The Socialists won parliamentary elections held in July, and Berisha resigned, succeeded by Socialist Rexhep Kemal Meidani. Fatos Nano became prime minister in 1997 but resigned in 1998 and was succeeded by fellow Socialist Pandeli Majko. Majko resigned in Oct., 1999, after he lost a Socialist party leadership election and was succeeded by Socialist Ilir Meta. Albanians approved their first post-Communist constitution in 1998. The country was flooded with refugees from neighboring Kosovo in 1998 and 1999. In the June, 2001, parliamentary elections the Socialists were returned to power. After Meta resigned in Jan., 2002, Majko again became prime minister; following Majko's resignation in July, Nano succeeded him. In June, 2002, a compromise candidate, Alfred Moisiu, a former general and defense minister, was elected to succeed President Meidani.
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Albania , Albanian Shqipnija or Shqiperia, officially Republic of Albania, republic (1995 est. pop. 3,414,000), 11,101 sq mi (28,752 sq km), SE Europe. Albania is on the Adriatic Sea coast of the Balkan Peninsula, between Serbia and Montenegro on the north, Macedonia on the east, and Greece on the south. Tiranë is the capital and largest city.



 (4000 B.C.-1000 A.D.)
Relive the astonishing achievements of the ancient Dorians, Illyrians, Roman and Byzantine Empires.  See the great impact Albanians have had on these important empires and people.
 
 (1500 A.D.- 1912)
The Ottoman Empire created a vast variation in Albanian culture and the adaptation to Ottoman life had important consequences in Albanian history.  This was a time when Albanians thrived and continued to spread their power around the world.

 
 
(1912 - 1944)
In the creation of the modern independent Albanian state proved to be a real challenge for the Albanian people.  Yet through the strong leadership of King Zog I, the Albanian People persevered

(1944 - 1991)
If one could pinpoint a dark period in the history of Albania it would be under the communist dictatorship of Enver Hoxha.  The end of WWII forced Albania into an escalation toward communism and shaped the darkest 40 years in its history.

 (1991 -  beyond)
The rapid development after communism of the Albanian state and the increasing modernization can only be accredited to the Albanians people's immense spirit and pride for their country.