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Famous Albanians

Famous Albanians

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ne: 24-04-2004, 02:04:07
Muhamet Ali Pasha

Born: 1769
Died:  1849
Place of Birth:  Kavalla, Albanian Ottoman Providence (Present Day Macedonia)
Dynasty Rule: Over 100 years
Cities Founded: Khartoum  



The founder of the modern Egyptian dynasty, lasting for over 100 years can be contributed to an Albanian named Muhamet Ali.  Ali was born in 1769, in the Ottoman province of Albania.  He arrived in Egypt in 1798 in an effort to fight off a French invasion there.  Using the exceptional skill of the mostly Albanian army that he had created, he succeeded in gaining Egypt in 1801, and being named Pasha of Egypt in 1805.  The excellent statesmanship that followed has been considered one of the most efficient in world history.  He was able to transform an undeveloped Egypt into a modern competitor.  He set up reforms in Egypt's irrigation system, introduced new crops like cotton, and established many Western-style schools.  His many achievements in industry and agriculture turned Egypt into a modernized society.  Yet his genius did not stop here.  Muhamet Ali displayed the skill of his superior Albanian army in aiding the sultan to suppress numerous rebellions, and between the years of 1838 and 1841, he challenged, with much success, the power of the sultan in creating a greater independent Egypt.  He had invaded the Sudan and founded the city of Khartoum by this time.  Yet when his powers stretched in the suppression of Greek affairs, Europe stepped in and overwhelmed his army.  Still, he was granted the rule of Egypt and Sudan, and with this empire he created an exceptionally efficient dynasty that ensured Egypt's success for the next 100 years.  The achievements of this revolutionary ruler and statesman serve as just another example validating the historical importance of Albania.

http://albhistory.netfirms.com/famousalbanians-muhametali.html

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#1 ne: 07-05-2004, 16:56:30
Kukuzeli Jan, well known figure of Byzantine culture.He was bornin Durres.He is known as great singer of Kostadinopoja incentury XI. His merit is closely connected with the fact thathis musical notion is used for many centuries in church music.Kukuzeli worked on a written musical system established by him,which is named as kukuzeli system.This system is presented as the third phase of Byzantine semiography is based upon 40 graphicletters and musical circles.This system is treated in specialtreaty named "The beginning of psalms signs compiled andelaborated by Jan Kukuzeli".

Aleksi Andrea 1425-1505 (also called Durrsaku.) Albanianarchitect, painter and sculptor and one of the greatest artistsof Dalmatian renaissance. In all inscriptions of the works, hemarks his origin from Durres, where he was born. While stillyoung, he went in exile in the city Split, of Dalmatia, where hestudied under the supervision of the sculptor Mark Troja. He isthe author of the statues of the merchants loggia in Ancona ofItaly, of 1454 mural paintings in a church of the Island Arabe of Dalmatia. His masterpiece is the baptistry of Trogir.

Barleti Marin (about 1460-1512.) Renowned humanist, historian,the first author known as one of the greatest of the Albanian old literature. Barleti was born in Shkoder, and there is very little information about his life. Barleti has lived in exile as apriest in the territories of Venice, where he increased hishumanist culture and became a connoisseur of the classicalliterature and the Latin language in which he wrote his works.Barleti has written three works entitled "Siege of Shkoder,""History of life and acts of Scanderbeg" and "Briefing on life of popes and emperors."

Architect Kasemi (1570-1650) master of Ottoman classicalarchitectu re, was born in village Gramsh of Tomorrica, Skrapar.He graduated in architecture in Istanbul and was ranked among the closest assistants of Architect Sinani. He has served as chiefarchitect of the Ottoman empire and has created originalmonumental works such as Qoshku Bagdad, Qoshku Revan, Mosque inFaience in Istanbul and many works in Albania such as inns,bridges, baths and the tracks of Medieaval roads in Berat, Korce, etc.

Bardhi Frang (1606-1643). The first Albanian lexicographer,historian, folklorist and ethnographer. One of the oldest authors of Albanian literature. He was born in a famous clerical familyof Kallmet (Zadrime). He studied in the religious college ofLoreto (Italy) and in 1635 was ordained bishop of Sape. Hedrafted and published the Latin-Albanian dictionary, "GjergjKastriot of Epirus," etc.

Bogdani Pjeter (1625-1689). Most outstanding writer of oldAlbanian literature. He was born in Gur of Has in 1625. After the high studies in theology and philosophy in Rome where he also won the title of Doctor, he served as parson in Pult and Prizren. In1656 he was ordained bishop of Shkoder and in 1677 arch bishop of Skopje. His most important work "Life of Prophets" was publishedin 1685 in the city of Padova in Italy, and was reprinted in 1691 and 1702 in Venice under different titles.

Buzuku Gjon, 16th century. The first author known so far of theAlbanian literature, translator into Albanian of a clerical bookcalled "Missal" (1555), the oldest Albanian work which has beenpassed on up to date. The first 16 pages of the copy of the bookare missing. The book contains clerical material and the mainparts of Catholic liturgy. "Missal" was published in Latinalphabet of semi-gothic type.

Tepelena Ali Pasha, 18th century. Feudal strong ruler in Southern Albania. He is the founder of self-governing region of Janine, rebel against Osman Empire power in Albania. He was born in Tepelena, in amilitary feudal family and was distinguished for the skills andenergies that fulfilled it ambitious plans to become the onlyruler of the country by using all the means. In 1784 he won thetitle "Pasha", as military Commander close to Valiu of Rumelia in Sofia. The policy of Ali Pasha Tepelena aimed at self-governingand uniting of Albanian provinces under the governance of JaninePasha.

Asdreni, Aleks Stavre Drenova (1824-1947) Distinguished poet,publicist and democrat activist. He is the author of the FlagAnthem. With his creativeness he made a forward step in thetransition from romanticism to realism.

Kristoforidhi Konstandin, (1827-1895) Connoisseur of the Albanianlanguage, outstanding activist of the National Renaissance,education and culture. He was born in Elbasan and attended thesecondary school in Zosimea of Ioannina. His fundamental activity is linked with the spread of the Albanian language and school. He is known as the first author of the first Primer in Albanianlanguage, in Gege dialect, in 1867 and a year later the publisher the same primer in the Toske dialect. The fundamental work ofKristoforidhi is "Dictionary of Albanian language." He is anadvocate of the theory on the Pelasgian origin of the Albanianlanguage.

Gjika Elena, (Dora d'Istria,) 1829-1888. Romanian progressivewriter and publicist of Albanian origin. She is the author ofmany studies such as Albanian nationality according to folksongs, Albanian writers of southern Italy, Albanians in Romania,etc. She is known in the world opinion for the contribution shehas made to the Albanian question.

Frasheri Naim, 1846-1900. Great poet of Albanian NationalRenaissance, outstanding patriot, thinker and activist ofeducation and culture. He was born in Frasher of Permet. NaimFrasheri completed the secondary school Zosimea, in Greece. Hisfirst poem was "Albania" published in 1897 and which enthusedAlbanian patriots. He was one of the main publishers of theReview Drita in Istanbul, "Dituria" in a later period whichpublished many of his verses and proses for Albanian schools. In1886, he published the poem "Bageti dhe Bujqesi." The main worksof his are "Qerbelaja," "History of Scanderbeg," "AlbanianLanguage" , "Korca", etc.

Idromeno Kole, 1860-1939, Painter of National Renaissance,architect and photographer, People's Painter. He was born inShkoder and since a child he manifested his talent for art. Hehad a photo-studio and was the first to perform cinematographicslid es in Albania in 1912. He painted many compositions ofethnographic character. His masterpiece is "Sister Tone" in 1883. He is the the first in Albanian art to practise landscape.

Konica Faik (1876-1942) Publicist, literary critic and politicalactivist. During his activity, he made efforts for a commonliterary language and brought his contribution to enriching anddeveloping the literary and publicistic style of the writtenAlbanian. His most renowned works are "Doctor Needle uncoversroots of drama of Mamurras", "Under the shadow of date trees"etc. He is known as director of the review "Albania", one of the most important publications of Renaissance.

Eftimiu Viktor, 1889 - 1972, Romanian writer of Albanian origin.Distinguishe d personality of Romanian culture and world culture.Academician Eftimiu was born in village Boboshtice of Korca, andemigrated in the first years of his life in Bucharest of Romania. Among the most outstanding works of Eftimiu is the novel "Man who saw death with his own eyes", "The Black Cock", "Prometheus","Dr.Faust" etc. , any many creative writings with Albanianmotives such as "Portraits and Memoirs", "Two crosses", the short poem "Scanderbeg", the essay "Albanian Folklore", etc. During his life, he kept links with the birthplace. At the beginning of the20s, he was the chairman of a patriotic association which workedfor the protection of the rights of Albania as an independentstate.

Gjadri Gjovalin, 1899-1974, distinguished engineer, constructorin designing and construction of bridges. He was born in Shkoder. Gjadri completed the secondary school and university studies inAustria. He is renowned as one of the construction engineers ofthe Bridge of Mat, one of the bridges known in the worldliterature and which was declared in 1999 a monument of cultureby the Albanian Government. Among the bridges he has designed isthe bridge of Penkova, that of Mbrostar, the bridge ofRrogozhina, the bridge of the boulevard Deshmoret e Kombit inTirana.

Poradeci Lasgush, (Llazar Gusho), 1900-1989. Lyric poet, he wasborn in Pogradec in a family of handicraftsmen. He completed hisschool in the birthplace, then he continued his education inGreece and Athens and finally in Austria. His lyric writings onlove, philosophy and patriotism were collected in the Volumes"Dance of Stars" (1933) and "The Star of Heart" (1937). LasgushPoradeci has translated in the Albanian language worlddistinguished poets, such as Heine, Mayakovski, Pushkin, Goethe,etc.

Kono Kristo, composer, People's Artist. He was born in Korce in1907. He has graduated in music in Paris of France, and receiveda diploma in the conservatory G.Verdi of Milan in clarinet andband instruments. Along compositions such as romance, poems inchorus, solist and orchestra, he has composed the operetta Agimi, first work of this kind in our music, and the opera "Lulja eKujtimit" in which for the first time in our scenic art, thepatriotic topic is treated. Kono is one of the first Albanianauthors who put the folk motive in the choral and orchestralscores and promoted it to the level of elaborated music.

Kuteli Mitrush (Dhimiter Pasko), 1907-1967, writer, economist,publicist and translator. He took the first lessons in hisbirthplace, Pogradec, then he graduated in economy in Bucharest,Romania. In his literary activity, Kuteli is known for the works"Albanian nights", "Ago Jakupi and other stories," "My villagedrinks raki", "Forest of chestnut trees," "Xinxifilo", "Albanianancient stories," etc. He is also known as literary critic.

Antoniu Kristaq (1909-1979) Singer, tenor and baritone (People'sArtist.) He was born in Korce and lived in exile in Romania,where he completed the Mime-drama Academy of Bucharest. He played his first roles in some cinematographic films due to which hebecame outstanding. As a concert master and operetta singer, hehas made tours of Europe with a cast. He returned to Albania in1935 and started an extensive artistic activity. He claimeddistinction for the interpretation of arias by classical operasand folk songs.

Cabej Eqerem, 1908-1980. Cabej was one of the most renownedfigures of the science of Albanian education and culture. Hefinished the university studies in philology in Vienna ofAustria. He made scientific studies in linguistics, as well as in folklore, ethnography, history of literature. An important placein his works is occupied by the etymological and lexicographichistor ic studies, study on dialects and onomatopoeia and thecodification of the literary language. "Etymological studies inthe field of Albania", "Introductory information in Albanianlanguage history," "Historic phonetics of Albanian Language" aresome of the most outstanding works of Cabej.

Tefta Tashko Koco, well known artist, lyrical singer. Artist of People. She was born in Fajum, Egypt. She studied in Monpelje,France in 1927 and went on with her studies in Paris in 1930,where she attended the High Institute of Music. In the period1931-1932 she participated in a number of competitions organizedby Paris Conservative. She was distinguished and showed hervocal-interpretative skills in "Comic Opera", where she playedthe role of Butterfly. She started her musical activity inAlbania in 1935, by giving concerts in all the town of thecountry.

Buda Aleks, historian, professor, President of the Academy ofSciences in 1972. He was born in 1911 in Elbasan. He completedhis studies in Austria. Buda has made a great contribution to the field of Albanian mediaeval history and the National Renaissance. He is coauthor and chief editor of "The History of Albania," in1959.

Kraja Marije, singer of the period of the Independence and in the later time. People's Artist. She was born in Zara (Dalmatia) in1911. She completed her higher school and university in Austria.Her activity covers all genres of the vocal and elaborated musicbeginning with the chamber music (romance song) and oratorio upto the scenic music. She has represented the Albanian lyric artalso in countries of Europe and Asia.

Dritero Agolli, outstanding poet, prose writer and publicist. Hewas born in 1931 in Menkulas of Devoll. As for the genres, hiscreativeness is rich, among which the novel "Commissar Memo", the satiric novel "The rise and fall of comrade Zylo" are the mostoutstanding along with many poems which reflect the opinions andsentiments of the people.

Kadare Ismail, 1936. He is the greatest writer of Albanian letters who, after 1990 has been living in France. He is candidate for theNobel prize in literature. Kadare was born in Gjirokaster. He isthe author of the novels "The General of the Dead Army,"translated in eight languages of the world, "Dawn of Steppe","Concert at the End of Winter", and a number of verses,collections of novels and poetry. He is honoured with the hightitle "Honour of the Nation." Kadare is a member of the FrenchAcademy among 12 foreign associate members of this Academy, andof the Berlin Academy. His literary works have been translated in 20 languages of the world.

Famous Arberesh people

Arberesh people of Italy left Albania after the Ottomanoccupation of the 15th century, but they have inheritedgeneration after generation, together with the old ethnic name,the language, customs and culture. The Arberesh settlements arelocated in three zones, one near Palermo, another in PalazzoAdriatica and the third in Calabria. A number of writers andoutstanding people from the Arberesh people of Italy have made agreat contribution to the cultivation of the Albanian languageand the information on the history of their country.

 

Leke Matrenga, 1560-1619. The oldest author, renowned Arberesh.He was born in Hore of Arberesh (Sicilia) and studied in areligious college in Rome. He has translated from Italian acatechism "Christian instructions." The work has a greatimportance especially for the documentation of an old stage ofthe dialects of the Arberesh of Sicilia. It is of interest alsofor the short verse published in it and which is the firstpublished trace of the Albanian verse.

Jeronim De Rada, 1814-1903. Poet, publicist, folklorist,philologist and teacher. One of the most renowned figures ofNational Renaissance. De Rada is the founder of the Arbereshliterature and culture. He was born in Makia of Calabria. In1948, he issued the first Albanian newspaper L'Albania D'Italia.His most outstanding works are "Antiquity of Albanian Nation,""Rhapsody of an Arberesh poem," "Song of Milosao," etc., and hedevoted importance to the question of the origin of the Albanians and the Albanian language.

Bilota Bernard, 1843-1918. Poet, folklorist, Arbresh fromFrasnita of Cosenza. Known as initiator of two Arbereshlinguistic congresses held in Koriljano Calabro, 1895 and inLunger in 1897.

Dhimiter Kamarda, 1821-1882. Linguist, patriot, arberesh.Publisher of folklore, with scientific knowledge also in thefield of Indo-European linguistics. His main work "Test ofComparative Grammar on Albanian Language" is the first scientific work in the comparative historic study aspect. He made animportant contribution with the publication of "The AlbanianGeneral Alphabet," in 1869.

Karmel Kandreva, 1931-1982. Renowned Arberesh writer. He was born in Saint Japel of Calabria. He has published an extensive studyentitled "Didactic test in a bilingual Arberesh environment"which brings facts on the right of the arberesh people tocultivate their mother tongue and to teach it at schools.Kandreva has published poetical volumes entitled "Spirit of Arber is alive", "Spirit of Arbers is alive, Arberesh narrates," and"Spirit of Arber is alive, ancient branch suffers."

Skiroi Zef, poet, publicist and folklorist from Hora of Arbereshin Sicilia. After completing the Albanian Seminar of Palermo, hestudied law. In the first period of his creativeness, Skiroitreated the patriotic tradition of Arberesh literature. Here wemay mention the poem "Mili and Hajdhia". Other works of his are"Songs of Liktor", "In a foreign country," "Folk songs ofAlbania" etc.

  • Postime: 27290
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  • Gjinia: Mashkull

#2 ne: 19-05-2005, 20:39:58
Artists and entertainers
Melihate Ajeti - actress
Muharrem Qena - actor
Istref Begolli - actor
Shani Pallaska - actor
James Belushi - actor (ethnic Albanian)
John Belushi - actor (ethnic Albanian)
Anita Bitri - singer
Elona Bojaxhi - model, actress
Xhejlane Broqi - singer, producer
Eliza Dushku - actress (ethnic Albanian)
Eli Fara - singer
Ardit Gjebrea - singer
Merita Halili - singer
Agim Kaba - actor (ethnic Albanian)
Masiela Lusha - actress
Sejfulla Myftari (aka Cekja) - comedian
Violeta Manushi - actress
Nevin Me硪 - actor
Aleksander Moisiu - actor
Inva Mula-Tchako - singer
Nexhmije Pagarusha - singer
Sandë² Prosi - actor
Anri Sala - artist
Parashqevi Simaku - singer
Anjeza Shahini - singer
Tania Doko - Singer
James Biberi - Actor
Luan Begeti - Actor
Stan Dragoti - Director, Producer, Screenwriter

  • Postime: 27290
  • Karma: +48/-5
  • Gjinia: Mashkull

#3 ne: 19-05-2005, 20:40:22
Painters
Kole Idromeno
Vangjush Mio
Ndoc Martini
Simon Rrota
Andrea Kushi
Zef Kolombi
Spiro Xega
Abdurrahim Buza
Onufri
Ibrahim Kodra
Composers
Arian Avrazi
Zeqirja Ballata
Fahri Beqiri
Simon Gjoni - (1926-1991)
Tonin Harapi - (1928-1992)
Feim Ibrahimi - (b.1935-1997)
Akil Mark Koci (b.1936)
A. Komino
Kozma Lara - (b.1930)
Jani Papadhimitri
Alberto Paparisto - (b.1925)
Rafet Rudi
Thoma Simaku
Ramadan Sokoli - (b.1920)
P묬umb Vorpsi - (b.1957)
Ç¥sk Zadeja - (1927-1997)
Luan Krasniqi

  • Postime: 27290
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  • Gjinia: Mashkull

#4 ne: 19-05-2005, 20:40:53
Historians and linguists
Marin Barleti - historian
Gjon Buzuku - translator
Poets and writers
Kristina O'Donnelly - author/editor/journalist
Ernesto Sabato - writer
Drit벯 Agolli - poet, writer(b.1931)
Fatos Arapi - poet (b.1930)
Frang Bardhi - author of note (1606-1643)
Eqrem Basha - poet (b.1948)
Flora Brovina - poet (1949)
Pjetë² Budi - author of religious works (1566-1622)
Andon Zako Ç¡jupi - poet and dramatist (1866-1930)
Martin Camaj - poet (1925-1992)
Nicola Chetta - poet (1740?-1803)
Rrahman Dedaj - poet (b.1939)
Jeronim de Rada - poet (1814-1903)
Ridvan Dibra - poet (1959)
Aleksander Stavre Drenova (aka ASDRENI) - poet (1872-1947)
Gjergj Fishta - writer and poet (1871-1940)
Nezim Frakulla - poet (1680-1760)
Naim Frash벩 - poet (1846-1900)
Fahredin Gunga - poet (1936-1997)
Sabri Hamiti - poet (b.1950)
Ismail Kadare - writer and poet (b.1936)
Hasan Zyko Kamberi - poet
Musine Kokalari - writer
Ernest Koliqi - writer (1903-1975)
Faik Konica - writer
Gazmend Krasniqi - poet (b.1963)
Natasha Lako - poet and novelist (b.1948)
Luljeta Lleshanaku - poet (b.1968)
Bardhyl Londo - poet (b.1948)
Rudolf Marku - poet (b.1950)
Lek렍atr뮧a (aka Luca Matranga) - poet (1567-1619)
Din Mehmeti - poet (b.1932)
Esad Mekuli - poet (b.1916-1993)
Ndre Mjeda - poet (1866-1937)
Millosh Gjergj Nikolla - poet (1911-1938)
John Musachi - poet (1882-1965)
Fan S. Noli - poet and religious leader (1882-1965)
Ali Podrimja - poet (b.1942)
Lasgush Poradeci - poet (1899-1987)
Dhori Qiriazi - poet (b.1993)
Rexhep Qosja - poet and literary critic (1936)
Zef Serembe (aka Giuseppe Serembe) - poet (1844-1901)
Filip Shiroka - poet (1859-1935)
Azem Shkreli - poet (1938-1997)
Xhevahir Spahiu - poet (b.1945)
Sterjo Spasse - poet (1914-1989)
Kasë­ Trebeshina - writer (b.1926)
Vorea Ujko (aka Domenico Bellizzi) - poet (1918-1989)
Jul Variboba (aka Giulio Variboba) - poet (1742-1788)
Pashko Vasa (aka Wassa Effendi) - poet (1825-1892) (ethnic Vlach)
Agim Vinca - poet (b.1947)
Moikom Zeqo - writer and archaeologist (b.1949)
Visa Zhiti - poet (b.1959)
Politicians and leaders
Antonio Gramsci - (1891-1937)
Mehemet Ali - viceroy of Egypt (ethnic Albanian)
Fejzi Alizoti - politician
Ramiz Alia - president
Anastasius - Byzantine Emperor (491-518 AD)
Sali Berisha - president
Isa Boletini - nationalist
Pope Clement VII - Pope of Rome (1700-1721)
Bajram Curri - national hero
Xhemil Dino - diplomat
Lek렄ukagjini - prince
Farouk of Egypt - king of Egypt (ethnic Albanian)
Fawzia of Egypt - Egyptian princess (ethnic Albanian)
Fuad I of Egypt - king of Egypt (ethnic Albanian)
Fuad II of Egypt - king of Egypt (ethnic Albanian)
Luigj Gurakuqi - patriot
Sk뮀er Gjinushi - politician
Azem Hajdari - politician
Enver Hoxha - dictator
Kastriot Islami - politician
Ismail Qemali - nationalist
Gjergj Kastriot Skanderbeg - national hero
Giorgio Basta - general.
Ali Kelmendi - communist
Pandeli Majko - politician
Rexhep Meidani - president
Hysni Milloshi - Communist Party leader
Alfred Moisiu - current president
Sulejman Pasha - founder of Tirana
Turhan Pasha Pë²­eti - politician
Hasan Bej Prishtina - prime minister, nationalist
Edi Rama - mayor of Tirana
Bajram Rexhepi - Kosovo's prime minister
Shp뎩m Rroqi - politician
Ibrahim Rugova - Kosovo's president
Eqerem Spahia - politician
Mehmet Shehu - communist politician
Ali Pash렔epelena
Shefqet Verlaci - politician
Xhafer Ypi - politician
Ahmet Zogu (King Zog I of Albania) - king

  • Postime: 27290
  • Karma: +48/-5
  • Gjinia: Mashkull

#5 ne: 19-05-2005, 20:41:19
Religious figures
Pal Engj묬i - clergyman
Rrok Mirdita - Catholic archbishop
Mother Teresa - famous missionary
Fan S. Noli - Albanian Orthodox Bishop
Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee - muslim scholar
Scientists
Ferid Muradi - scientist, Nobel laureate (ethnic Albanian)

  • Postime: 27290
  • Karma: +48/-5
  • Gjinia: Mashkull

#6 ne: 19-05-2005, 20:41:42
Sportspeople
Elton Bitincka - Olympic athlete
Dorian Collaku - Olympic athlete
Kreshnik Gjata - Olympic swimmer
Nelson Hysa - Olympic boxer
Ilir Kafarani - Olympic weightlifter
Mirela Manjani - athlete
Anila Meta - Olympic athlete
Artur Muhedini - Olympic boxer
Ymer Pampuri - weightlifter
Sahit Prizreni - Olympic wrestler
Erkand Qerimaj - Olympic weightlifter
Rovena Rovena - Olympic swimmer
Ilir Suli - weightlifter
Luan Shabani - weightlifter
Klodiana Shala - Olympic athlete
Donald Suxho - volleyballist for American Olympic Team
Gert Trasha - Olympic weightlifter
Theoharis Trasha - Olympic weightlifter

  • Postime: 27290
  • Karma: +48/-5
  • Gjinia: Mashkull

#7 ne: 19-05-2005, 20:42:09
Primeminster of Ottoman Empire
Bajazit Pasha
Is'hak Pasha
Gedik Ahmet Pasha
Davud Pasha
Ahmet Pasha Dukagjini
Ibrahim Pasha Parga
Ajaz Mehmet Pasha Vlora
Lufti Pasha Shkodra
Rrustem Pasha
Kara Ahmet Pasha Dukagjini
Arnavuat (Semiz) Ahmet Pasha
Koxha Sinan Pasha
Ferhat Pasha
Hadim Hasan Pasha
Jemishxi Hasan Pasha
Nasuh Pasha
Oh벬i Hasan-Hysein Pasha
Merre Hysein Pasha
Tabani Jassi Mehmet Pasha
Kemankush Kara Mustafa Pasha
Xhivan-kapuxubashi sultan-Zade Semin Mehmet Pasha
Kara Murat Pasha
Tarhonxhu Ahmet Pasha
Kara Murat Pasha
Zurnazen Mustafa Pasha
Mehmet Pasha Qyp벬iu
K?ly Fayil Ahmet Pasha
K?ly Zade Mustafa Pasha
Kadi Ali Pasha
Amzhazade Hysein Pasha
Numan Pasha Qyp벬iu
Haxhi-Halil Pasha
Haxhi-Ahcas Mehmet Pasha
Bijikli Ali Pasha
Ajvas-zade Halil Pasha
Mustafa Pasha Bajrakatari
Memish Pasha
Giritli-Mustafa Nail Pasha
Mehmet Ferid Pasha Vlora
Said Halim Pasha
Ahmet Izet Pasha
Damad Ferid Pasha
Other
Elyesa Bazna - German spy
Carl Ritter von Ghega - builder of the Semmering Railway in Austria that became the model of Europe.
Mehmet Isa - chief architect of the Taj Mahal
Sadefqar Mehmeti - chief architect accredited with the design of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul.
Murat Rais - 16th century figure
Hava Rexha - was the oldest woman in Albania and maybe in the world

  • Postime: 1740
  • Karma: +10/-0
  • Gjinia: Mashkull

#8 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:19:27


Constantine the Great
 Flavius Valerius Constantinus


-Roman Emperor of Illyrian Origin-



Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on July 25, 306 and who ruled an ever-growing portion of the Roman Empire until his death.

Constantine is best remembered in modern times for the Edict of Milan in 313, which fully legalized Christianity in the Empire, for the first time, and the Council of Nicaea in 325; these actions are considered major factors in the spreading of the Christian religion. His reputation as the "first Christian Emperor" has been promulgated by historians from Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea to the present day; although there has been debate over the veracity of his faith because he was baptized only on his death bed.[3]

Early life
Bronze statue of Constantine I in York, England, near the spot where he was proclaimed Emperor in 306 Constantine was born at Naissus (modern Niš, Serbia, ancient Illyria) in the province of Moesia Superior on 27 February 272 or 273, to Roman general, Constantius Chlorus, and his first wife Helena, an innkeeper's daughter who at the time was only sixteen years old. His father left his mother around 292 to marry Flavia Maximiana Theodora, daughter or step-daughter of the Western Roman Emperor Maximian. Theodora would give birth to six half-siblings of Constantine, including Julius Constantius.

Young Constantine served at the court of Diocletian in Nicomedia, after the appointment of his father as one of the two caesares (junior emperors) of the Tetrarchy in 293. In 305, both augusti (senior emperors), Diocletian and Maximian, abdicated, and Constantius succeeded to Maximian's position of western augustus. Although two legitimate sons of emperors were available (Constantine and Maxentius, the son of Maximian), both of them were ignored in the transition of power. Instead, Severus and Maximinus Daia were made caesares. Constantine subsequently left Nicomedia to join his father in Roman Gaul. However, Constantius fell sick during an expedition against the Picts of Caledonia, and died on July 25, 306 in Eboracum (York). The general Chrocus, of Alamannic descent, and the troops loyal to Constantius' memory immediately proclaimed Constantine an augustus.

Under the Tetrarchy, Constantine's succession was of dubious legitimacy. While Constantius as senior emperor could "create" a new caesar, Constantine's (or, his troops') claim to the title of augustus ignored the system of succession established in 305. Accordingly, Constantine asked Galerius, the eastern augustus, to be recognized as heir to his father's throne. Galerius granted him the title of caesar, confirming Constantine's rule over his father's territories, and promoted Severus to augustus of the West.

Ruler of the West
Constantine's share of the empire comprised of Britain, Gaul, the Germanic provinces, and Spain. He therefore commanded one of the largest Roman armies, stationed along the important Rhine frontier. While Gaul was one of the richer regions of the empire, it had suffered much during the Crisis of the Third Century. Many areas were depopulated, the cities ruined. During his years in Gaul, from 306 to 316, Constantine continued his father's efforts to secure the Rhine frontier and rebuild the Gallic provinces. His main residence during that time was Trier.

Immediately after his promotion to emperor, Constantine abandoned his father's British campaign and returned to Gaul to quell an uprising by Franks. Another expedition against Frankish tribes followed in 308. After this victory, he began to build a bridge across the Rhine at Cologne to establish a permanent stronghold on the right bank of the river. A new campaign in 310 had to be abandoned because of Maximian's rebellion (below). The last of Constantine's wars on the Rhine frontier took place in 313, after his return from Italy, and saw him again victorious. Constantine's main goal was stability, and he tried to achieve that by immediate, often brutal punitive expeditions against rebellious tribes, demonstrating his military power by conquering the enemies on their own side of the Rhine frontier, and slaughtering many prisoners during games in the arena. The strategy proved successful, as the Rhine frontier remained relatively quiet during the rest of Constantine's reign.

In the interior conflicts of the Tetrarchy, Constantine tried to remain neutral. In 307, the senior emperor Maximian (recently returned to the political scene after his abdication in 305) visited Constantine to get his support in the war of Maxentius against Severus and Galerius. Constantine married Maximian's daughter Fausta to seal the alliance and was promoted to Augustus by Maximian. He didn't interfere on Maxentius' behalf, though. Maximian returned to Gaul in 308 after he had failed to depose his son. At the conference of Carnuntum, where Diocletian, Galerius and Maximian met later that year, Maximian was forced to abdicate again and Constantine reduced to caesar. In 309, Maximian rebelled against his son-in-law while Constantine was campaigning against the Franks. The rebellion was quickly quelled, and Maximian was killed or forced to commit suicide. Both Constantine and Maximinus Daia were disappointed over their relegation to caesar and Licinius' appointment, and subsequently defied that ruling and styled themselves Augustus, which was granted to them by Galerius in 310, thus officially creating four Augusti. With Galerius' death in 311, the last ruler with enough authority interested in continuing the tetrarchy left the stage, and the system rapidly declined. In the struggle for power that ensued, Constantine allied himself with Licinius, while Maximinus approached Maxentius, who was still officially regarded as an usurper.

312-324
Early in 312, Constantine crossed the Alps with his army and attacked Maxentius. He quickly conquered Northern Italy in the battles of Turin and Verona and then moved on to Rome. There he defeated Maxentius in the Battle of Milvian Bridge, which resulted in his becoming Western Augustus, or ruler of the entire Western Roman Empire. During the next years, he gradually consolidated his military superiority over his rivals in the crumbling Tetrarchy.

In 313, he met Licinius in Milan to secure their alliance by the marriage of Licinius and Constantine's half-sister Constantia. During this meeting, the emperors agreed on the so-called Edict of Milan, officially granting full tolerance to all religions in the empire, especially Christianity. The conference was cut short, however, when news reached Licinius that his rival Maximinus Daia had crossed the Bosporus and invaded Licinian territory. Licinius departed and eventually defeated Maximinus, gaining control over the entire eastern half of the Roman Empire. Relations between the two remaining emperors declined, though, and either in 314 or 316, Constantine and Licinius fought gainst one another in the war of Cibalae, with Constantine being victorious. They clashed again in the Battle of Campus Ardiensis in 317, and agreed to a settlement in which Constantine's sons Crispus and Constantine II, and Licinius' son Licinianus were made caesars.

In the year 320, Licinius reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan in 313 and began another persecution of the Christians. It became a challenge to Constantine in the west, climaxing in the great civil war of 324. Licinius, aided by Goth mercenaries, represented the past and the ancient faith of Paganism. Constantine and his Franks marched under the Christian standard of the labarum, and both sides saw the battle in religious terms. Supposedly outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious in the battles of Adrianople, the Hellespont, and at Chrysopolis. With the defeat and death of Licinius a year later (he was accused of plotting against Constantine and executed), Constantine then became the sole emperor of the entire Roman Empire.[4]

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#9 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:20:33
Justinian I
Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus

-The Greatest Byzantine Emperor of All Times is of Illyrian Origin-



Justinian Family Data: An Illyrian, Justinian was born Petrus Sabbatius in A.D. 483 in Tauresium, Dardania Near Shkup. Justinian's childless uncle became the Roman Emperor Justin I in A.D. 518 and adopted Justinian.
Death : Justinian died on November 14, 565, in Constantinople.

Justinian's Claims to Fame: Justinian is known for his reorganization of the government of the Roman Empire and his codification of the laws, the Codex Justinianus in A.D. 534.

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#10 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:21:41
Aleksander the Great






Sir William Woodthorpe Tarn, of the British Academy, regarded worldwide as having written the definitive work on Alexander the Great, states in the opening paragraph of his book Alexander the Great that "Alexander certainly had from his father (Philip II) and probably from his mother (Olymbia) Illyrian, i.e. Albanian, blood!"*

source

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#11 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:22:49
Skanderbeg
 Gjergj Kastrioti


-The Greatest Albanian National Hero-





The Builder of the Albanian identity!

Skanderbeg , c.1404-1468, Albanian national hero. His original name was Gjergj Kastrioti, but the Ottomans called him Iskender Bey with an inference to Alexander the Great, and this was corrupted into Skenderbe. The son of a prince of Northern Albania, he was educated in the Muslim faith as a hostage at the court of Sultan Murad II . The sultan showered favors on him and gave him the title bey and an army command. In 1443, when the Ottomans indicated they would attack Albania, Skenderbe escaped to his homeland, abjured Islam, and formed a league of princes among the Albanian chieftains. He proclaimed himself prince of Albania. To resist the Ottomans under Sultan Muhammad II , Scanderbeg received aid at various times from Venice, Naples, Hungary, and the pope. He had success in these wars partly because of the rugged Albanian terrain and partly because he employed a mobile defense force using guerrilla methods. He withstood repeated attacks and forced the sultan to conclude a 10-year truce in 1461 and never lost a battle. Skenderbe broke the truce in 1463 when Pope Pius II called for a new crusade. The pope's death (1464) forced abandonment of the crusade; Skenderbe, left without allies, had to retreat to his fortress of Kroia. After his death the league dissolved, resistance collapsed, and Albania fell to the Ottomans. Skenderbe's life is the source of many Albanian tales. He created a nation that captured the imagination of the world.

For a upcoming documentary on Skenderbe click here

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#12 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:23:54
Pope Clement XI
 Giovanni Francesco Albani


-Albanian Pope in the Vatican-




Pope Clement XI (July 23, 1649 – March 19, 1721), born Giovanni Francesco Albani, was Pope from 1700 to 1721. He was from an eminent family of Urbino that had estabilished itself there from northern Albania in the 15th century.

Link

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#13 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:24:53
Francesco Crispi

-Italian/Arberesh Politician-



Francesco Crispi (October 4, 1819–August 12, 1901) was a 19th century Italian politician. He was instrumental in the formation of the united country and was its Premier from 1887 until 1891 and again from 1893 until 1896.

Crispi's family came originally from the small agricultural community of Palazzo Adriano, in south-western Sicily. It had been founded in later fifteenth century by Eastern Orthodox Albanians (later Arbëreshë) fleeing from the Turks.[1] Crispi himself was born in Ribera, Sicily and baptized in the Byzantine Rite. He assumed an active role in the Sicilian uprising against the rule of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies at Palermo in 1848. The uprising ended in failure and the government was restored in May 1849. Unlike many, Crispi was not granted amnesty and was forced to flee the country. He lived next in Piedmont where he worked as a journalist. He was implicated in the Mazzini conspiracy at Milan in 1853 and was expelled from Piedmont. He took refuge first on Malta, then in Paris and, even he had not done so before, met up with Giuseppe Mazzini in London.

In 1860 he, alongside Giuseppe Garibaldi, led the "expedition of the thousand" which disembarked on Sicily on 11 May 1860. On the 13th, Crispi drew up the Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy. After the fall of Palermo, Crispi was appointed minister of the interior and of finance in the Sicilian provisional government, but was shortly afterwards obliged to resign on account of the struggle between Garibaldi and the emissaries of Count Camillo Benso di Cavour on the question of timing of the annexation of Sicily by Italy.

Appointed secretary to Garibaldi, Crispi secured the resignation of Agostino Depretis, whom Garibaldi had appointed pro-dictator, and would have continued his fierce opposition to Cavour at Naples, where he had been placed by Garibaldi in the foreign office, had not the advent of the Italian regular troops and the annexation of the Two Sicilies to Italy brought about Garibaldi's withdrawal to Caprera and Crispi's own resignation.

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Furthermore, we should not forget that some of them have been eminent elements of the political panorama of “Risorgimental” Italy, (as Francesco Crispi, who described himself as an " Albanian in his blood and his heart ",) and that they have often bravely fought for the national unity of Italy. The poetry and the novelistic production of the Albanianss of Italy , are in prevalence of popular nature, and they often celebrate some historical episodes or emphasize the love for their abandoned native land. The works of the Arbëreshë (and of all the other ethnic minorities) represent a cultural patrimony that we should carefully safeguard because they are the testimony of the vitality of the Albanian people, a people that is still little known.

source

Nearly all merchants in Montenegro were originally from this nation. The same may be said regarding merchants in many Romanian cities. In Italy, too, the Albanians have played an important role in various domains (Crispi,' for one, is of Albanian origin) and in Greece, the most courageous soldiers were of Albanian descent.

source

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#14 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:25:53
Pavlos Kountouriotis

-First President of Greece-



Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis (1855-1935) (Greek: Παύλος Κουντουριώτης) was a Greek naval hero of Arvanite origin, and twice President of Greece.

Pavlos Kountouriotis was a member of the historical Kountouriotis family which originated from the island of Hydra, Saronic Islands; many members of the family took part in the Greek War of Independence. The original family name was Zervas but was changed to Kountouriotis, since one of their ancestors lived for a while in the village of Kountoura, Megarida.

He joined the navy in 1875, being promoted to Rear Admiral in 1912, on the outbreak of the First Balkan War. During the Balkan Wars, he led the Greek Navy scoring major victories against the Turkish fleet in December, 1912 (Battle of Elli) and in January 1913 (Battle of Limnos), liberating most of the Aegean islands. His victories, due in large part to his daring but successful tactics, earned him the status of a national hero.

In 1916, he became a minister in the Stephanos Skouloudis government, but, in disagreement with the pro-German feelings of King Constantine I of Greece, he followed Eleftherios Venizelos to Thessaloniki were he was assigned the ministry of Naval Affairs in Venizelos' National Defence government. He subsequently retired from the navy, and when King Alexander I of Greece died in 1920, he became Regent of Greece until the elections that took place in November 1920 and brought King Constantine back.

In March 1924, after King George II of Greece was deposed, he was elected as the first President of the Second Hellenic Republic, but resigned the post in March, 1926 in opposition to General Pangalos' dictatorship. He was reelected president in May 1929, but due to serious health complications he resigned in December of the same year. He died in 1935.

Α World War II Greek destroyer and a Standard-class frigate, the F 462 Kountouriotis, are named after him.

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#15 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:26:52
Theodoros Pangalos

-Second President of Greece-



Theodoros Pangalos (Greek Θεόδωρος Πάγκαλος) (Born 1878, Salamina, Greece; died 1952, Athens, Greece) was a Greek general of Arvanite origin who briefly ruled the country in 1925 and 1926.

Early career

Pangalos graduated first in his class from the Hellenic Army Officer Cadet Academy, (Greek: Σχολή Ευελπίδων, Scholi Evelpidon) in 1900 and continued his studies in Paris, France. In 1916 he supported Eleftherios Venizelos in his struggle against Constantine I of Greece, and was rewarded with a senior position in the War Ministry. He participated in the Asia Minor Campaign from senior staff positions, but was demoted after Constantine returned to power in 1920; in 1923 Pangalos supported the coup d'etat by Nikolaos Plastiras which abolished the monarchy and declared the Second Hellenic Republic. His first job was to prosecute a number of prominent pro-monarchists in a kangaroo court that resulted in 6 executions; he then rushed to Thessaloniki, from where he successfully reorganized the Greek army in Macedonia and Thrace, as the war with Turkey was not over, and an attack in the region was feared to be imminent. The reorganization was so successful, that the Greek High Command prepared for a possible advance into Eastern Thrace in the face of the Turkish demands in the Lausanne peace talks. A sudden reversal of the Turks in April preempted the new war, and the Treaty of Lausanne was signed.

A staunch nationalist, Pangalos objected to the terms of the treaty, and declared that his troops would attack Turkey nonetheless in order to block the deal. He was forced to resign, but his stance made him popular with the many segments of Greek society that objected to the treaty. During the period of political instability that followed, Pangalos jumped into the fray, gaining and losing a number of ministerial positions as governments came and went.

In Power

On June 24, 1925, officers loyal to Pangalos, fearing that the political instability was putting the country at risk, overthrew the government in a coup. Pangalos immediately abolished the young republic and began to prosecute anyone who could possibly challenge his authority, including his old boss, Plastiras. Freedom of the press was abolished, and a number of repressive laws were enacted (including a law dictating the length of women's skirts - no more than 30cm above the ground), while Pangalos awarded himself the Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer. His political and diplomatic inability however became soon apparent. He conceded too many rights to Yugoslav commerce in Thessaloniki, but worse of all, he embroiled Greece in the so-called War of the Stray Dog, harming Greece's already strained international relations.

Soon, many of the officers that had helped him come to power decided that he had to be removed. On 24 August 1926, a counter-coup deposed him and Pavlos Kountouriotis returned as President.

After his rule

Pangalos remained in prison for 2 years and was released during a period when a number of amnesties were given by Venizelos. He never regained the popular support he had before the coup, and never again played a role in Greek politics. He unsuccessfully run for parliament in 1950 and died 2 years later.

His grandson, also named Theodoros Pangalos, is currently a member of the Greek parliament and a former minister of Foreign Affairs. He is a member of the PASOK socialist party.

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#16 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:28:01
Muhammad Ali Pasha

-Builder of Modern Egypt-



...and all the Farouk dynasty.


The Mosque of Muhammad Ali in Cairo, Egypt.


Link

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#17 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:29:06
Mother Theresa
 Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu

-The Most Famous Catholic Nun in the World-





Mother Theresa was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in Skopje*, Macedonia, on August 27, 1910. Her family was of Albanian descent. At the age of twelve, she felt strongly the call of God. She knew she had to be a missionary to spread the love of Christ. At the age of eighteen she left her parental home in Skopje and joined the Sisters of Loreto, an Irish community of nuns with missions in India. After a few months' training in Dublin she was sent to India, where on May 24, 1931, she took her initial vows as a nun. From 1931 to 1948 Mother Teresa taught at St. Mary's High School in Calcutta, but the suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls made such a deep impression on her that in 1948 she received permission from her superiors to leave the convent school and devote herself to working among the poorest of the poor in the slums of Calcutta. Although she had no funds, she depended on Divine Providence, and started an open-air school for slum children. Soon she was joined by voluntary helpers, and financial support was also forthcoming. This made it possible for her to extend the scope of her work.

By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus. ”Small of stature, rocklike in faith, Mother Teresa of Calcutta was entrusted with the mission of proclaiming God’s thirsting love for humanity, especially for the poorest of the poor. “God still loves the world and He sends you and me to be His love and His compassion to the poor.” She was a soul filled with the light of Christ, on fire with love for Him and burning with one desire: “to quench His thirst for love and for souls.”

Vatican Website

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#18 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:30:42
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

-The Father of the Modern Turkish Nation-



TIME Magazine, October 12, 1953, p. 67:

Turkey

...By conventional standards, Kemal Ataturk was hardly an admirable character. He was a bitter, sullen and ruthless man, a two-fisted drinker and a rake given to shameless debauch. Politically, though he proclaimed a Bill of Rights, he flouted it constantly; though he talked of loyalty, he hanged his closest friends. He was devoid of sentiment and incapable of love, unfaithful to everyone and every cause he adopted save one-- Turkey. But before he died, his driven, grateful people thrust on him the last and greatest of his five names: Ataturk, Father of All the Turks.
The Father of All the Turks (who left no legitimate heirs) was born in 1881 in Salonika, then part of the Ottoman Empire, of a mild Albanian father and a forceful Macedonian mother. Mustafa was a rebel from the start. His pious Mohammedan mother urged him to become a holy man, but he became a soldier; at 22, a captain, he rebelled against the Sultan and was nearly executed; at 27, he joined the Young Turks rebellion, then rebelled against the Young Turks. The army, fearful of him, shunted him from post to post, but could neither shake him nor subdue him. At Gallipoli, in 1915, he defeated the British; in the Caucasus, he checked the Russians; in Berlin, 1918, he drunkenly needled the high panjandrum of his allies, Field Marshal von Hindedburg; in Arabia, 1918, he held off T. E. Lawrence's Bedouin hordes. At 38, he came out of the crash of the Ottoman Empire the only Turkish commander untouched by defeat.

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#19 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:31:39
Vasile Lupu

-Ruler of the Romanian Province of Moldavia in 1634-1653-


Basil the Wolf , Romanian  Vasile Lupu ambitious and enterprising prince of Moldavia (1634–53) who introduced the first written laws and printing press to his principality.   Albanian in origin, Basil acceded to the throne of Moldavia in the spring of 1634. He intrigued throughout his reign to acquire the Walachian throne as well, and in 1637 and 1639 led unsuccessful expeditions against the ruling prince…
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9013610/Basil


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#20 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:32:41
Diocletian
 Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus


-Roman Emperor of Illyrian Origin-



Diocletian, Roman emperor 284-305 AD, is said to have been born at Dioclea, near Salona, in Dalmatia. His original name was Diocles. Of humble Illyrian origin, he served with high distinction and held important military commands under the emperors Probus and Aurelian, and accompanied Carus to the Persian War. After the death of Numerian he was chosen emperor by the troops at Chalcedon, on the 17th of September 284, and slew with his own hands Arrius Aper, the praefect of the praetorians. He thus fulfilled the prediction of a druidess of Gaul, that he would mount a throne as soon as he had slain a wild boar (aper). Having been installed at Nicomedia, he received general acknowledgment after the murder of Carinus. In consequence of the rising of the Bagaudae in Gaul, and the threatening attitude of the German peoples on the Rhine, he appointed Maximian Augustus in 286; and, in view of further dangers and disturbances in the empire, proclaimed Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Caesars in 293. Each of the four rulers was placed at a separate capital -- Nicomedia, Mediolanum (Milan), Augusta Trevirorum (Trier), Sirmium. This amounted to an entirely new organization of the empire, on a plan commensurate with the work of government which it now had to carry on. At the age of fifty-nine, exhausted with labor, Diocletian abdicated his sovereignty on the 1st of May 305, and retired to Salona, where he died eight years afterwards (others give 316 as the year of his death). The end of his reign was memorable for the persecution of the Christians. In defense of this it may be urged that he hoped to strengthen the empire by reviving the old religion, and that the church as an independent state over whose inner life at least he possessed no influence, appeared to be a standing menace to his authority. Under Diocictian the senate became a political nonentity, the last traces of republican institutions disappeared, and were replaced by an absolute monarchy approaching to despotism. He wore the royal diadem, assumed the title of lord, and introduced a complicated system of ceremonial and etiquette, borrowed from the East, in order to surround the monarchy and its representative with mysterious sanctity. But at the same time he devoted his energies to the improvement of the administration of the empire; he reformed the standard of coinage, fixed the price of provisions and other necessaries of daily life, remitted the tax upon inheritances and manumissions, abolished various monopolies, repressed corruption and encouraged trade. In addition, he adorned the city with numerous buildings, such as the thermae, of which extensive remains are still standing.

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#21 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:33:37
Aurelian
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus


-One of the Greatest Roman Emperors of Illyrian Origin-



One of the greatest of the Roman soldier emperors, born at Sirmium in Pannonia between AD 212-14. He was of humble Illyrian origin, but nothing definite is known of his family. He had always shown great enthusiasm for a military career, and so distinguished himself in the campaigns in which he took part that on one occasion he received a public vote of thanks. At the same time he was proclaimed consul elect, and adopted by Ulpius Crinitus, military governor of Illyria and Thrace. On the death of the emperor Claudius II Gothicus (270), Aurelian was proclaimed his successor with the universal approval of the soldiers. His first task was to continue the war which had been begun by Claudius against the Goths. He drove them out of Moesia across the Danube, where he left them in possession of Dacia, which he did not think himself able to retain; the name was transferred to Moesia, which was then called Dacia Aureliani. The chronology, however, of Aurelian's reign is very confused, and the abandonment of Dacia is placed by some authorities towards its close. He next entered upon campaigns against the Juthungi, Alamanni, and other Germanic tribes, over whom, after a severe defeat which was said to have imperilled the very existence of the empire, he at length obtained a complete victory. Having thus secured the Rhine and Danube frontiers, he turned his energies towards the east, and in 271 set out on his expedition against Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra. At the same time he crushed two pretenders to the throne -- Firmus and Tetricus. Firmus, a wealthy merchant of Seleucia, had proclaimed himself emperor of Egypt. Aurelian, who was at the time in Mesopotamia, hastened to Egypt, and ordered him to be seized and put to death. Tetricus, who had been proclaimed emperor in the west after the death of Gallienus, and left undisturbed by Claudius II, still ruled over Gaul, Spain and Britain. A decisive battle was fought near the modern Châlons, in which Tetricus was defeated. The restoration of the unity of the empire was thus complete. In 294 a brilliant triumph, adorned by the persons of Zenobia and Tetricus, was celebrated at Rome.

Aurelian now turned his attention to the internal affairs of the empire. He introduced sumptuary laws; relieved the poor by distributions of bread and meat, proceeded with great severity against informers and embezzlers; began the construction of various public works and buildings; and proclaimed a general amnesty for political crimes. The restoration and enlargement of the walls of Rome, commenced by him, was not completed until the reign of Probus. An attempt to restore the standard of the coinage is said to have caused a revolt of the workmen and officials connected with the mint, which was only put down with the loss of 7000 soldiers. It has been suggested that this was really an attempt at revolution incited by the senate and praetorian guards, the opportunity being found in disturbances resulting from opposition to the attempted reform, which by themselves could hardly have assumed such serious proportions. Aurelian's restless spirit was not long able to endure a life of inaction in the city. Towards the end of 274, he started on an expedition against the Persians, halting in Thrace by the way. While on the march between Heracleia and Byzantium, at the beginning of the following year, he was assassinated through the treachery of his secretary Eros, who, in order to escape the discovery of his own irregularities, incited certain officers against the emperor by showing them a forged list, on which their names appeared as marked out for death.

Aurelian well deserved the title of restorer of the empire, and it must be remembered that he lived in an age when severity was absolutely necessary. He was a great soldier and a rigid but just disciplinarian. In more favorable circumstances he would have been a great administrator. He displayed a fondness for pomp and show on public occasions; he was the first Roman emperor to wear the diadem, and assumed the title of Lord and God on medals.

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#22 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:35:38
Probus
Marcus Aurelius Probus


-Roman Emperor of Illyrian Origin-



Marcus Aurelius PROBUS (b. 232), an Illyrian, was saluted by the eastern armies (276). He repelled from Gaul the Franks and Alamanni and other peoples, who had inflicted great devastation. He also strengthened the Danube frontier, quieted Asia Minor, and suppressed pretenders in Gaul. When the praetorian prefect Carus was proclaimed emperor by the troops in Raetia, Probus was murdered in Pannonia.

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#23 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:36:21
Claudius II Gothicus
Marcus Aurelius Valerius Claudius II Gothicus

-Roman Emperor of Illyrian Origin-



Claudius II, Roman emperor from 268 to 270 AD, belonged to an obscure Illyrian family. On account of his military ability he was placed in command of an army by Decius; and Valerian appointed him general on the Illyrian frontier, and ruler of the provinces of the lower Danube. During the reign of Gallienus, he was called to Italy in order to crush Aureolus; and on the death of the emperor (268) he was chosen as his successor, in accordance, it was said, with his express desire. Shortly after his accession he routed the Alamanni on the Lacus Benacus (some doubt is thrown upon this); in 269 a great victory over the Goths at Naissus in Moesia gained him the title of Gothicus. In the following year he died of the plague at Sirmium, in his fifty-sixth year. He enjoyed great popularity, and appears to have been a man of ability and character.

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#24 ne: 14-03-2007, 01:37:22
Carus
Marcus Aurelius Carus

-Roman Emperor of Illyrian Origin-



Marcus Aurelius Carus, Roman emperor from 282 to 283 AD, was born probably at Narbona (more correctly, Narona) in Illyria, but was educated at Rome. He was a senator, and had filled various civil and military posts before he was appointed prefect of the praetorian guards by the emperor Probus, after whose murder at Sirmium he was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Although Carus severely avenged the death of Probus, he was himself suspected of having been an accessory to the deed. He does not seem to have returned to Rome after his accession, but contented himself with an announcement of the fact to the senate. Bestowing the title of Caesar upon his sons Carinus and Numerianus, he left Carinus in charge of the western portion of the empire, and took Numerianus with him on the expedition against the Persians which had been contemplated by Probus. Having defeated the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, Carus proceeded through Thrace and Asia Minor, conquered Mesopotamia, pressed on to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and carried his arms beyond the Tigris. But his hopes of further conquest were cut short by his death. One day, after a violent storm, it was announced that he was dead. His death was variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound received in a campaign against the Huns; but it seems more probable that he was murdered by the soldiers, who were averse from further campaigns against Persia, at the instigation of Arrius Aper, prefect of the praetorian guard. Carus seems to have belied the hopes entertained of him on his accession, and to have developed into a morose and suspicious tyrant.

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