The proclamation of the republic of Kosova - Albanian History & Culture

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The proclamation of the republic of Kosova

The proclamation of the republic of Kosova

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The proclamation of the republic of Kosova

Part of Platform For The Resolution Of The Albanian National Question


The Government authorities of the Province of Kosova stood passive to Belgrade's military and police violence. But the representatives of the Albanian population of Kosova, proceeding from the widely recognized right to self determination, gathered in the Assembly of Kacanik on 7 September 1990, while the Yugoslav Federation had not yet disintegrated. This Assembly proclaimed the Republic of Kosova, decided its separation from the republic of Serbia, declared in an equal subject among the constituents of the Yugoslav Federation and approved its Constitution. The Proclamation of the Republic of Kosova, fulfilled the requirements contained in the resolution of the Bujan Conference at the beginning of 1944 and the voiced in popular protests in the fll of 1968, popular demand which was echoed again in the powerful demonstrations of the Spring 1981.

Even though the Republic of Kosova did not seek to incorporate all ethnic Albanian lands languishing under the Yugoslav yoke, its proclamation in itself was one step ahead towards the materialization of the Major Programme of the National Albanian Renaissance. Besides, it marked the beginning of the disintegration of the Socialist Yugoslav Federation. Indeed, immediately after the Assembly of Kacanik, Four out of the six Yugoslav republics held referendums to make their independence effective (Slovenia in December 1990, Croatia in May 1991, Macedonia in September 1991, Bosnia-Herzegovina in October 1991). At the same time, the Republic of Kosova, too, sealed the act of its independence in the popular referendum of 30 September 1991.

The disintegration of the multinational Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was only a logical consequence of the historical proccesses. This time, the Marxist ideology failed to save multinational Yugoslavia from the inner national antagonisms, as it had also failed to save the Soviet Union itself. Although the signal of disintegration was given with the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Albanian national Movement made a substantial contribution to wearing thin the fabric of the Federation during the decades that preceded the fall of the Berlin wall. Due to the substantial contribution to the disintegration of the Socialist Federation of Yugoslavia, Albanians were the first to be entitle to have their republic procalimed by Kacanik recognized. However, the legitimate demand of the Albanians once more was ignored by the International Community, more precisly by the Council of Ministers of the European Community which on 16th December 1991 declared the arranging priciples for the problems rising from the disintegration of Federal Yugoslavia and Soviet Union in two basic documents(instructions on the recognition of the new states in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union and declaration on Yugoslavia shortly recognized as "the badinter principles"). Based on these principles, upon the disintegration of Yugoslavia: a) only its republics would be recognized as independent states, b) no change of borders by the separated republics would be recognized, except when changes would be agreed by upon both sides and c) the republics after the independence would continue to observe the rights of the national, religious and linguistic minorities living within their borders in compliance with the principles of international rights and widely upheld norms of the international organizations. Starting from this criteria, the Conference of Peace in Yugoslavia under the chairmanship of Lord Carrington, established by the Council of Ministers of the European Union recognized on 11 January 1992 only the independent of the republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, and hesitantly, also the one of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Later, it recognized the independece of the Federal republic of Yugoslavia as a new state and not a continuation of the Socialist Federal republic of Yugoslavia, now totally disintegrated.

Disintegration of Yugoslavia, represented the long expected change by the Albanians to have the injustice of the past redressed and to achieve liberation from the Serb occupation specially now that they had proclaimed their own Republic. Unfortunately, the international diplomacy was reluctant to recognize the legitimate rights. Besides, it again included Albanian Kosova in multinational state, in the Federal republic of Yugoslavia (now shrunk) although this is the end of the 20th century, which has already entered into history as the century of disintegration of Europe's multinational states sustained with violance.


ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF ALBANIA

Platform For The Solution Of The National Albanian Question.
Tirana, 1998

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