The proto-Illyrians in early Greece - Albanian History & Culture

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The proto-Illyrians in early Greece

The proto-Illyrians in early Greece

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ne: 20-11-2011, 11:36:53
Greeks were not the first perpetrators to design a device that could eventuate in stealing historical events and twist the accounts of other people. Among the most despicable acts of theft has been the masterminded plan to plagiarize the Iliad. What would be considered a translation in modern times, was permissible rendering of Illyrian mythological elements into Greek official ideology. The custom of depriving subjugated people of their own gods was practiced from the dawn of civilizations.

The invaders would often adopt the gods of the conquered slaves in order to break their spirit and erase their memories. Yet no other invaders apart from Greeks has ever stolen the whole mythology of another people. Not only Greeks stole the Iliad from Illyria but they even changed their own name from Greek into Helens ‘people of the sun’. Why did Greeks escape unnoticed for their transgression? The Roman invasion of Illyria the distraction of Illyrian royal records and libraries made the Greek theft invisible. Unable to deal with the rising power of Illyria, weakened Greek city states invited Rome to destroy their annoying Illyrians and only after the fall of the culturally superior  neighbors did Greeks change the name into Helens.

The acceptance of the name Helen was not an indiscriminate act of surrender before the falsification of history. The very seeds of Greek civilization did not share the same genetic make up. The so-called Dark Ages of Greece, the pouring of Dorian tribes in Peloponnesus was actually an act of retribution for the distraction of Troy. Hence Achaeans finally paid a heavy price for destroying the Illyrian colonies inAsia Minor.



The creation of Homeric songs and their impact on Greek psyche corresponded to the destruction of Mycenaean civilization in Greece by Dorian tribes. But were Dorian people Greek by descent? The names of Dorian chieftains show that their origin was actually northern Illyrian where they rushed forth towardsGreece. Among Hylleis, Pamphyloi, and the Dymanes, the name of Hylleis (alb. hyllus ‘star, sun’) is not Greek at all while Dymanes is typically Illyrian, similar to Dymalus : ‘two mountains’. Illyrian dynasties used to add the numbers dy- ‘two’, tri- ‘three’ in front of their names to symbolize the unique royal line of succession.



The method of naming the leaders according to the royal parentage was typical of ancient monarchies. Because Greek people were actually a mixture of invading Achaeans and liberating Dorians the name Helen was considered to be a restoration of ‘people of the sun’ in their native land. Despite of common Indo European origin Achaean and Dorian were two different cultures. Not only language was different but even the architecture and burial customs were not the same. In the list of Hellenic tribes and cities, Illyrian names can be detected easily.



The full list of Illyrian tribes can be found at the bottom of article!

Hellenic Illyrian Tribes
Greek civilization grew out of a welter of various Hellenic Illyrian tribal nations which had occupied the region from time immemorial or had entered from elsewhere at an early date. Not much is known of this complex group of interrelated peoples.

ÆTHIKES They lived in northern and northwestern Thessaly, on Pindos and Karvounia mountains, near the Peneios river. They were neighbours of the Athamanes and the Tymphaioi and were first mentioned by Homer. They were regarded by other Hellenic peoples as barbarians and thieves. Their towns were Metsovo and Malakasio (nowadays within the administrative division of Ioannina). They disappeared after the Roman annexation of Greece in the 2nd century BCE.



AGRÆOI They lived in the Agrapha Mountains, between the rivers Achelous and Agraphiotes. They called their land Agraea or Agrais. Important cities were Agrinio (capital city of the administrative division of Aetoloakarnania) and Ephyra.
They created their own kingdom.

Salynthios…………………………………..fl. c. 430 BCE
To the Ætolian League…
AKARNANES They lived in Akarnania, having arrived there from Argos. Their cities were Amphilochia, Amphilochikon Argos, Limnaea, Stratos, Oiniades, Anaktorio, Echinos, Aktio, Solion, Alyzea, Astakos, Phoitia, Medeon, Thourion, and Metropolis.

Alkmeon
Akarnan, with…
Amphoteros
The Akarnanian League…………………………….5th cent.
Allied to the Amphilochians
Allied to Athens………………………..5th cent.-391
To Sparta……………………………………391-371
To Thebes……………………………………371-300
To Epirus……………………………………300-273
Allied to the Ætolian League…………………..270-245
To the Ætolian League…………………………245-231
2nd Akarnanian League…………………………230-225
To Macedonia…………………………………225-197
Within the Roman State from 197…
Mnasilochos……………………………..190-189
ALMOPIA They were located northwestern Macedonia, nowadays adm.div. of Pella, between the rivers Loudias and Axios and between the regions of Eordaea and Pelagonia. The region was inhabited by few people, who were isolated – therefore it was one of the first regions occupied by Macedonia. The primary cities were Orma, Apsalos, Europos, and Notia.

Almopas
To Macedon
AONES Ancient inhabitants of Boeotia after the Ektines, regarded by other Hellenes as barbarians. They lived near Thebes, and came from Sounion (Attica) toBoeotia, together with Temmikes, Leleges, and Yandes.

Aon (Aonia – later called Boeotia - was named after him)
Defeated by the Cadmians
Afterwards they lived between north of Thebes and Lake Yliki.
APERANDOI They lived between the rivers Agraphiotes and Megdovas, to the Agrapha mountains, neighbours of the Agraeoi. They were an Ætolian sub-tribe.



ATHAMANES They lived in northeastern Epirus, on Tzoumerka mountains and in part of the administrative division of Trikala. They were regarded by other Hellenes as a semi-barbarian tribe. Important cities of this tribe: Argothea (capital city) and Theodoria.

Athamas
To the Corinthian League……………………c. 395-378
To the 2nd Athenian League…………………….378-
During the 2nd Sacred War allied to Macedonia
Opposed to Phocis 354
Opposed to Macedonia 323
Under the control of Macedonia
Alliance with Pyrros of Epirus
Theodoros……………………………………fl. c. 205
Amynandrus…………………………………..fl. c. 201
Formed an Athamanian League
ATINDANES They lived in the region between Chaonia and Dodoni, in northwest Epirus.

Allied to the tribe of Molossoi……………….c. 429
Allied to Rome………………………………c. 229
Allied to Macedonia…………………………225-221
To Macedonia……………………………………….205
AVANDES They lived in Euboea. They were a protohellenic tribe that came into Greece appr. 2100-1900 BCE. They had lived initially in Phocis (Avai) and some of them in Argolis, Sicyon, Epirus, and Asia Minor.

Avas
Elephinor
Chalkodous
After the Trojan war they colonized Illyria.
They disappeared after the Ionian invasion on Euboea…
BOEOTOI The region of Boeotia is northwest of Attica, nowadays one of the 52 administrative divisions of modern Greece.

Boeotus
Itonus
Hippalcimus, with…
Alector, and…
Areilycus
Leaders of the province during the Trojan war:
Peneleus
Leitos
Arcesilaus
Prothenor
Klonios
Three generations after the Trojan War the region was inhabited by the Boeotian tribe. They lived initially on the Boios mountain of Pindos, between Epirus andMacedonia. From there they moved to Arne between Thessaly and the Pagasitikos bay (till the end of the late Hellenic era). They claimed to be an Ætolian sub-tribe.

Boeotos
Opheltas………………………………..fl. 1150-1100
Xanthos
By the end of the monarchy, the tribe had colonized the whole region, by c. 950.
1st Boeotian League…………………………..525-480
This consisted of the city-states of Thebes, Koronea, Aliartos, Tanagra, Thespies, while Orchomenos and Plataea remained independent, and Eleutheres and Erythres went to Athens.
Allied to Persia…………………………490-479
2nd Boeotian League…………………………..479-447
3rd Boeotian League…………………………..447-387
Boeotia was divided into districts in this era. These were:
a.) Thebais (including the cities of Thebes, Knopia, Ogchestos, Potniae, Kalydna, Therapnae, Schoinous, Peteon, Teumissos, Glisas, Yla, Foinikis, Tropheia),
b.) Orchomenia or Phlegyandis or Andreis (Orchomenos, Askledon, Tegyra, Yettos, Achmones, Kyrtone),
c.) Chaeronea,
d.) Kopon (Kopes, Akraefnio),
e.) Levadeia,
f.) Koronea (Koronea, Alalkomemes, Tylfossion),
g.) Aliartia (Aliartos, Medeon, Okalea),
h.) Thespiki (Thespies, Eutrisi, Lefktra, Kerissos, Nisa, Askre, Ippotes, Thisvi, Korsies, Sifoi),
i.) Plataeis (Plataea),
j.) Tanagraea or Poimandria (Tanagra, Delio),
k.) Parasopea (Eteonos, Skolos, Ysies, Erythres),
l.) Tetrakomia (Phires, Aulis, Mykalessos, Arma, Eleion, Yrea),
m.) Anthedon (Anthedon, Isos, Salganeas),
n.) Larymna (Karsea, Ales),
o.) Oropos
4th Boeotian League…………………………..378-338
To Macedon…………………………………..338-245
5th Boeotian League………………………336-146
To Aetolia…………………………………..245-236
To Macedon…………………………………..236-146
To the Roman Republic…………………………146-27
6th Boeotian League…………………..146 BCE-3rd cent. CE
To the Roman Empire (dist. of Achaea 85 BCE)….27 BCE-395 CE
CHAONES Ancient protohellenic tribe with a Pelasgian root. They lived in Epirus, between the Keraunia mountains and Kalamas river, therefore the first name of Epirus was Chaonia. They were related the the Chaones of southern.Italy. Important cities: Vouthroton, Ilion, Foenice, Panormos, Ogchismos, Amandia, Antigonea

Chaon
They developed a system relying on an annual leader. By the 5th century they had combined to a large degree with local Thesprotean and the Illyrian peoples.
Allied to Ambracia against the Akarnanes……….428
Photios and…
Nikanor
To the League of Epirus……………………….232-170
To Rome…………………………………………170
DOLOPES An ancient Aetolian tribe, related to the Magnites. They lived in Acarnania, southern Thessaly, and Phthia. Their borders were Phthia and Aenianes (East), Eurytanes-Agraeoi (South), Amphilochia (West), Athamanes-Thessaliotis (North). Their capital city was Ktimeni; other important cities were Dolopeis, Ageiai, Menelais, and Ellopia.

Dolops
Ktimenes
To Phthia
Phoinikas
Allied to Persia during the Persian Wars
Opposed to Herakleia 420.
To Pheres 374
To Macedonia 344
Allied to Athens 323
To the Aetolian League
To Macedonia
Independent………………………………….189-174
DORIANS A major Hellenic group of closely related tribes or septs, the Dorians are regarded both in archeology and in legend as the conquerors of the Peloponessus. Initially they lived in the area near Mount Olympus, in the land of Doris. In the 12th century they began migrating southward, and three separate Doric tribes (Hylleis, Pamphyloi, and the Dymanes) settled in eastern and southern Peloponnesus, displacing the native Achaeans. The mythological account of this has it that these three groups were the descendents of three Herakleides (children of Herakles), Temenus, Aristodemus, and Cresphontes, who successfully recovered an inheritence lost to a cousin, Eurysthenes of Mycenae. They were a rather dour, plain-spoken, and harshly disciplined people – as their best-known branch, the Classic Age Spartans, personified greatly. The tension between themselves and the other great Hellenic people, the Ionians – who regarded Dorics as barely-literate, ill-mannered martinets – is at the heart of a great deal of Greek historical development.

Doros
Ægimios
Yllos
Colonization of the Peloponnesus………………from c. 1100
Afterwards the Dorians colonized Megara, Argolis, Laconia, Messinia, Aegina, Milos, Thera, Crete, Rhodes and Corinth.

DRYOPES Related to the tribe of Leleges, they were a barbaric tribe. They lived in the area between the mountains Oiti and Parnassus. They called their land Dryopis. Owing to Dorian pressure they evacuated their land and colonized Euboea,  Karystos, Styra, Cyprus, Kythnos, Argolis (Asine, Nemea), Messinia, andEpirus. Main city: Drys.

Dryops
Melaneus
EKTINES The first inhabitants of Boeotea.

Ogygos
EORDAEA Ancient region (and tribe) in western Macedonia near the lake Vegoritis. Eordaea’s borders were Almopia-Lyngistis (North), Elimea (South), Imathia (East), Orestis (West). Inhabited during the late Bronze Age, the Eordoi were a proto-Hellenic, Indo-European that came to Eordaea appr. 2200 BCE. Nowadays there is the administrative division of Kozane. Main cities were Eordaea, Arnissa, Vegora and Kellas. Eordaea was the birthplace Ptolemy Lagos, the Macedonian general who gained the throne of Egypt.

Eordos
Destroyed by the Timenides of Macedonia
Allied to the Greeks during the Persian wars
EPEIOI A Pelasgian tribe in the western Peloponnesus, they lived in Elea, Pisatis, western Achaea, and the Echinades islands. Their cities: Vouprasion, Elida, Yrmine, Myrsinos, Olene, Dyme, Ephyra, Kyllene, Pylos, Aleisio.

Epeios
During the Trojan War there were 4 different kingdoms…
Polyxenos and…
Thalpios and…
Andimachos and…
Diores
Many conjoined with Kaukones and Ionians and lived in Achaea (the Larissos River district).
The Epeioi of Pisa combined with the Arcadians and dwelt lived in Pisatis.
Agorios
The remaining eventually melded with the Ætolians and lived in Elea; Elean sequence thereafter…
EURYTANES An Ætolian sub-tribe, they lived in the district of Karpenissi (today:capital city of Evritania), between the mountains Panaitolikon and Tymfristos. Their borders were Aenianes (East), Dolopes (North), Aperandoi-Akarnanes (West), Aetolians (South), Thestians (Southwest), Ofionians (Southeast). During the prehistoric era they had probably lived in Thessaly. Their capital city was Oichalia.

Eurytos
Allied to the Ætolians
From time to time to the Achaeans of Phthia, to Thessaly or to Macedonia
To Rome 146
GEFYRAEOI A non Hellenic tribe (Poinicians) They lived in Boeotia in the town Gefyra. Afterwards they moved into Attica It is claimed that they brought the alphabet into Greece. Homeland of Armodios and Aristogeiton, murderers of the Athenian tyrants Hippias and Hipparchus

IDONOI They lived in western Thrace, between the rivers Strymon and Nestos  (nowadays there are the cities Drama and Zichne). Their land was called Idonis or Andandros. Important cities were Myrkinos (capital-city), Draviskos and Amphipolis.

Idoneus
Lykurgos
Getas……………………………………….fl. c. 500
To Persia during the Persian wars
IONIANS One of the great pan-Hellenic tribal groups. They lived initially in southwestern Thessaly, but at a very early date migrated south. Some of them remained in southwestern Thessaly and others moved to west Locris, Achaea and Pisa. Afterwards they colonized Attica and Asia Minor. They also extensively settled the Cyclades, Euboea, Corinth, Megara, Epidaurus, and by the end of the Mycenean era they were in Attica, Megaris, Epidaurus, Troezin, Kynourua andAchaea. Defeated by the Achaeans, Minyes, Phlegyes and Lapithes, they remained largely in Attica, some of the islands, and most especially in western Asia Minor, which became known as “Ionia”. They are to a large extent responsible for Greek literature, philosophy, and much Hellenic art (the Ionian dialect is the foundation upon which standard Classic Greek developed, which in turn gave birth to “Koine” (Common speech – the language of most of the New Testament), Byzantine dialects, and ultimately modern Greek. In acquiescing to Persian hegemony in Asia Minor during the 6th and 5th centuries, they earned the scornful contempt of the Peloponessian Dorians, who regarded Ionians as weak, compliant, mendacious, and very likely treasonous. It is this tension between the two groups which is at the heart of much of Greek historical development.

Ion
Partitioned into four sub-tribes: Geleondes, Oplites, Aegikoreis and Argadeis.
KIKONES They lived between the Evros river and the Vistonis lake. They came there appr. 1300-1200 BCE. Their cities were Xantheia, Maronea, Ismaros, Zone and Kyzikos.

Allied to Trojans
Euphimos
Mendes
Their capital Ismaros was conquered by Ulysses after the Trojan war
After the Mycenean era they disappeared as an identifiable people.
KRESTONES The Kristones lived in Krestonia a Macedonian district between Chalkidicia and the Strymon river. They were a Pelasgo-Thracian sub-tribe. Important cities: Antigonea, Xylopolis, Terpyllos, Karavia, Kreston.

To Mygdonia from 480 BCE
LAPITHES The main inhabitants of early Thessaly, together with the centaurs (Northern Pelasgia-Perraivia). Their main cities: Argissa, Gyrtone, Orthe, Elone, Olossoi. They colonized Perraivia. In the 10th cent. they built a lot of cities in other regions (Koronos of Koronea, Phaliros of Phalara, Elatos of Elateia in Arcadia,Boeotia and Phocis, Phorvas and Triopas in Rhodes).

Lapithus
Ypseus
Ixion
Peirithous
Kaeneas (his succestors were the Kypselides of Corinth)
Koronos (his succestors were the Phylaides of Attica) with…
Polypoites and…
Leondeus (during the Trojan War)
They were defeated by Ægimios, king of the Dorians…
LELEGES Prehistoric tribe, they were nomads.

Leles (from Laconia or Egypt)
They colonized the Cyclades islands, Asia Minor, Aetolia, Acarania, Megara (King Leles), Locris, Leukas, Euboea, Boeotia and Lacedaemon (King Eurotas)
Leleges from Sparta colonized Messinia (King Polykaon)
Leleges from Megara colonized Pylos (Messinia) and Pylos (Elis)
Leleges in Epirus were neighbors of the tribe of Molossoi
In Thessaly they succeeded the Pelasgoi
Evacuation of Ionia due to the Greeks 1200-1100 BCE
Altis (King during the Trojan war – allied to the Trojans)
After the Trojan war they inhabited Chios and Samos
Evacuation of Caria owing to pressure from the tribe of Cares
LYNGISTES They lived in Macedonia, in the Lyngystis Region (nowadays: Florina) and their capital-city was called Herakleia. An Illyrian tribe, they were neighbours of the Dassarites. Main cities were Herakleia, Kella, Vevi.

VAKCHIADES
Aeropos
Vromeros
Arrabaius……………………………………fl. c. 423
Argaeus……………………………………..fl. c. 391
To Macedonia appr. 338
MAGNITES They lived on Thessaly, in Magnesia, they were a Macedonian sub-tribe. Important tribe during the Neolithic, Bronze, Minoan and Mycenean ages. Their cities were: Mithone, Thaumakine, Melivoia, Olizon and Minyai.

Magnes
Prothous
Philoktetes and…
Medon (during the Trojan War)
Continued independence until the 6th cent.
To Thessaly…………………………….6th cent.-363
To Pheres……………………………………363-c. 342
To Macedonia………………………………c. 342-194
Founding of Demetrias, capital city of Magnesia  293 BCE
The Magnesian League………………………….194-171
Eurylochos………………………………….193
To Macedonia…………………………………171-168
To Rome - (within the Magnesian League)………..from 168
MALIEIS They lived in southern Thessaly, a Dorian sub-tribe. The Malians were partitioned into three sub-tribes: Trachinioi, Paralioi, Iereis. Their capital city was Herakleia and afterwards Lamia.

Within the Malis region (their land was named after them) from c. 1100
Malos
To the Amphictiony of Delphi……………..8th cent.- ?
Opposed to the Phoceans end 6th cent.
To Thessaly
To Sparta……………………………………427-c. 371
To Pheres…………………………………c. 371-370
To Thebes……………………………………370-343
To Macedonia…………………………………343-220
To the Ætolian league…………………………220
To Thessaly appr. 27 BCE
MOLOSSOI An Epirote tribe dwelling in the north, who succeeded in gaining control over all of Epirus in late Classical times. They were best known for a breed of huge war-mastiffs they used in military operations.

For their rulers, see the earliest (pre-Aeacid) leaders of Epirus. Molossus, their eponymous ancestor, was said to have been born of a union between Neoptolemus and Andromache.
Established the Kingdom of Epirus, 6th or 5th centuries ?
Epirus to the Aeacid dynasty 395.
A League of Molossoi formed c. 300, within Epirote and then Roman jurisdiction.
MYGDONES A Thracian tribe living in southern Macedonia between the rivers Axios and Strymon, in northern Chalkidicia, near the Thermaikos Gulf. Their cities were Therme, Sidos, and Chalestri.

To Paeonia………………………………..to the 350′s BCE
To Macedonia thereafter…
OETAEOI They lived on the mountain Oeti in southern Thessaly and in the 5th century in the valley of Aspos river. Important cities: Antikera, Anthile, Herakleia, Trachis.

Opposed to Dorians and Trachineans
Formed the Oeteanid League
To the Aetolians……………………………..280-168
To the Achaean League…………………………162-146
Free and independent for a time; then…
To the Thessalian League thereafter…
ORESTES They lived in Epirus in their land called Orestis, which was part of Molossia. They inhabited the northern and northwestern borders of Greecebetween the rivers Aous and Achelous. They claimed to be successors of Orestes of Mykenaea. Important cities were Orestia and Argos Orestikon.

To Macedonia
To the Orestian League of Orestes within Roman hegemony
To the Roman district of Macedonia
PAETOI A minor tribe living in the region called Paetike. Their most important city was Zerenia.

To Persia and against the Greeks during the Persian wars  appr. 500-480
To Macedonia, 336
Against the Persians 334
PELASGOI An Indo-European tribe, that came into the Hellenic region appr. 3000 BCE. They lived in western Thessaly and Epirus. Afterwards they colonized not only Argolis and Arcadia, but also some of the Aegean islands, Attica, Crete, Ionia, Achaea, Phocis, Phthiotis, Euboea, Kristonia and Sicyon.

Pelasgos
Chloros
Most of them disappeared after the end of the Mycenean era, but some Pelasgian communities survived till the beginning of the 5th century BCE in Kristonia and Propontis.

PERRAIVOI They lived in northern Thessaly, initially in the district of Istiaiotis. Their cities were Gonnoi, Olousson, Phalanna, Doliche, and the Perraivean Tripolis (3 cities) consisting of Azoros, Polichna, and Pythion.

Triopas
Karkavos……………………………………..c. 1500 BCE
Gouneus (during the Trojan war)
To the Amphictiony of Delphi
To Larissa
To Archelaos of Macedonia
Defeated by the Aetolian League……………………199
Members as free tribe in the Delphian Amphictiony……196
They created a Perraivean League……………….196-191
To Macedonia…………………………………191-185
THE SEA PEOPLES Students of European history will be familiar in a general way with the phenomena of the devolution of Classic cultures, the swarming forth of innumerable barbarian tribes, and the subsequent emergence of the so-called “Dark Ages”, together with the slow re-emergence of a vibrant civilization in the Mediaeval and Renaissance eras. Such a model is an oversimplification of what occurred, but it is valid at least in broad descriptive outline. What is perhaps less well recognized is that such a pattern has happened, albeit on a smaller scale, before. Before the 1200′s BCE, the Eastern Mediterranean played host to a variety of sophisticated civilizations. For a variety of reasons, the 17th to 13th centuries BCE saw a general retreat, one which did not begin to reverse itself until the 9th century BCE (leading to the eventual flowering of Classic-Age civilization by the 5th century). One important factor in this process was the sudden emergence of a group of barbarian tribes known collectively as the Sea-Peoples. These raiders critically damaged the ancient civilizations of Greece, Anatolia and Syria, and seriously threatened the southern Levant and Egypt. The origins of these peoples are unknown, though it is believed that they emerged from the Aegean and may have been Minoan or Greek in origin. They referred to their own homeland as Ahhiyawa, which seems to be related to the word Achaean. The Hittites described their home as an island near Milawanda (Miletos, on the Ionian coast); which may refer to Rhodes, while the Bible describes their origin-point as Caphtor, which is believed to be Crete. They were technologically and artistically sophisticated, being one of the first groups in the Levant to use iron weapons. The following is a list of the documented Sea Peoples, and what linguists and archeologists believe about their origins and eventual fates…

Source : http://www.albpelasgian.com/the-proto-illyrians-in-early-greece.html

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